قال محمد فى الزيادات: إنما يصير دار الإسلام دار الحرب عند أبي حنيفة بو جوه: إحداها إجراء أحكام الكفر على وأ سل أو ذمي آمنا بأمانه الأول الذي كان ثابتا قبل استيلاء الكفار للمسلم لا يحكم فيها بحكم الإسلام، والثاني: أن تكون متصلة بدار الحرب لا يتخلل بينهما بلد من بلاد الإسلام، والثالث: أن لا يبقى فيها م م ه الصور لا تصير دار بإسلامه وللذمي بعقد الذمة، وصورة المسألة على ثلاثة أوجه إما أن يغلب أهل الحرب على دار من دورنا أو ارتد أهل مصر وغلبوا وأجروا أحكام الكفر أو نقض أهل الذمة العهد، وتغلبوا على دارهم، ففي كل من هذ حرب إلا بثلاثة شروط، وقال أبو يوسف ومحمد بشرط واحد لا غير، وهو إظهار أحكام الكفر وهو القياس، انتهىIt states in Jāmi' al-Rumūz:
"Muḥammad said in al-Ziyādāt: Dār al-Islām only becomes Dār al-Ḥarb according to Abū Ḥanīfah with [three] conditions. One is the enforcement of the laws of disbelief openly and that the law of Islām is not enforced therein. Second, that it is contiguous with Dār al-Ḥarb, with no city from the cities of Islām between them. Third, that no Muslim or Dhimmī remains secure there under the previous amnesty that was established before the dominance of the disbelievers – for the Muslim based on him being Muslim and for the Dhimmī based on the contract of Dhimmah. The materialisation of this situation can be in three ways: either the residents of Dār al-Ḥarb gain power over a land from our lands, or the people of a town apostatise and gain power and enforce rules of disbelief, or the people of Dhimmah break the contract and gain power over their land. In all cases, it will not become Dār al-Ḥarb except with the three conditions. Abū Yūsuf and Muḥammad said [it will become Dār al-Ḥarb] with one condition alone, which is the manifestation of the laws of disbelief; and that is [the dictate of strict] logic."
فأما صيرورتها دار الحرب فعنده بشرائط: إحداها: إجراء أحكام الكفر اشتهارا بأن يحكم الحاكم بحكمهم ولا يرجعون إلى قضاة المسلمين كما فى البحر، والثاني: اتصال بدار الحرب بحيث لا يكون بينهما بلدة من بلاد الإسلام ما يلحقهم المدد منها إلخThe meaning of rules of Islam requiring enforcement is their enforcement with power and strength, not the performance of the congregation and jumu'ah with the permission of disbelievers. The rule of Islam, and likewise the rule of kufr, are both determined by considering power, not by practice.
"As for it becoming Dār al-Ḥarb, according to [Abū Ḥanīfah] it has conditions.
First, the enforcement of the laws of disbelief openly, in that the ruler rules by their law, and they do not refer to Muslim judges, as mentioned in al-Baḥr.
Second, it being contiguous with Dār al-Ḥarb such that there is no city from the towns of Islām between them via whom assistance can reach them."
الاسلام لا يصير دار الحرب إلا بإجراء أحكام الشرك فيها وأن تكون متصلا بدار الحرب لا يكون بينها وبين دار الحرب مصر للمسلمين وأن لا يبقى فيها مسلم أو ذمي آمنا بالأمان الأول وأن لا يبقى فيها مسلم أو ذمي آمنا على نفسه إلا بأمان المشركين إلخIt states in Fatāwā Bazzāziyyah:
"Dār al-Islām does not become Dār al-Ḥarb until rules of idolatry are enforced therein and it is contiguous with Dār al-Ḥarb without any Muslim city between it and Dār al-Ḥarb, and no Muslim or Dhimmī remains there secure on account of the earlier amnesty, and no Muslim or Dhimmī remains secure there over his own life except by amnesty of the idolaters…"
قال السيد الإمام: والبلاد التي في أيدى الكفرة اليوم لا شك أنها بلاد الاسلام لأنه لم يظهر فيها أحكام الكفر بالIt states in Radd al-Muḥtār:
القضاة المسلمون انتهى
"The lands that are in the grasp of the disbelievers today, there is no doubt that they are Dār al-Islām because the rules of disbelief have not manifested there, and in fact the judges are Muslims."
دارفي معراج الدراية عن المبسوط: البلاد التي في أيدي الكفار بلاد الإسلام لا بلاد الحرب لأنهم لم يظهروا فيها حكم الكفر بل القضاة، والولاة مسلمون يطيعونهم عن ضرورة أو بدونها، وكل مصر فيه وال من جهتهم يجوز له إقامة الجمع والأعياد والحد وتقليد القضاة لاستيلاء المسلم عليهم، فلو الولاة كفارا يج قاضيا بتراضي المسلمين ويجب عليهم أن يلتمسوا واليا مسلما وز للمسلمين إقامة الجمعة ويصير القاضي
"It states in Mi'rāj al-Dirāyah from al-Mabsūṭ: 'The lands which are in the grasp of the disbelievers are Dār al-Islām not Dār al-Ḥarb because the rule of disbelief has not manifested there, and in fact the judges and governors are Muslims, following them out of need or otherwise. Every town in which there is a governor from the side [of the Muslims], it is permissible for him to establish the Jumu'ahs, 'Īds, ḥadd and appoint judges because Muslims have dominion over them. If the governors are disbelievers, Muslims can [themselves] establish Jumu'ah and a judge will become a judge by general agreement of the Muslims, although it is necessary for them to seek out a Muslim governor."
وبهذا ظهر أن ما في الشام من جبل تيم الله المسمى بجبل الدروز وبعض البلاد التابعة كلها دار إسلام لأنها وإن كانت لها حكام دروز أو نصارى، ولهم قضاة على دينهم وبعضهم يعلنون بشتم الإسلام والمسلمين لكنهم تحت حكم ولاة أمورنا وبلاد الإسلام محيطة ببلادهم من كل جانب وإذا أراد ولي الأمر تنفيذ أحكامنا فيهم نفذهاAl-Tahawi says: "When the people of a town apostatise and their rule is enforced, it becomes Dar al-Harb, whether contiguous with Dar al-Harb or not, according to Abu Yusuf and Muhammad."
"I say: It is evident from this that Mount Taymullāh in Shām, called Jabal Druze, and subordinate cities are all Dār al-Islām because although the rulers are Druze or Christians and they have judges adhering to their religion, some even openly insulting Islām and Muslims, they are all subordinate to our Muslim rulers, and they are surrounded by Dār al-Islām from all sides, and when the [Muslim] governor wants to enforce any laws amongst them he can."
"According to Abū Ḥanīfah it does not become Dār al-Ḥarb until three things come together therein: it being contiguous with Dār al-Ḥarb & nothing of Dār al-Islām exists between it and Dār al-Ḥarb; second, the rule of the people of disbelief is enforced therein; and third, that no Muslim or Dhimmī remains secure there [based on the amnesty granted by Muslim powers]. When these three things come together therein, it becomes Dār al-Ḥarb, and when any one condition falls short it will not be Dār al-Ḥarb."Then explaining Abu Hanifah's position, he says:
"This is like the town of al-Qirmiṭī. In the view of [Abū Yūsuf and Muḥammad], it is Dār al-Ḥarb despite being surrounded by Dār al-Islām because the rule of disbelief has become manifest therein, since they manifest the religion of Zoroastrians, fire-worship and insulting the Messenger Muḥammad (Allāh bless him and grant him peace)."
"The reasoning behind this view is that the status of an abode only relates to power and dominance and the enforcement of the rule of the religion therein. The proof for the soundness of this is that when we gain power over Dār al-Ḥarb and enforce our laws therein it becomes Dār al-Islām, whether contiguous with Dār al-Islām or not; the same is therefore the case with a town from Dār al-Islām, when disbelievers overpower it and their rule is enforced therein, it must be Dār al-Ḥarb, and there is no sense to giving consideration to a Dhimmī or Muslim remaining secure over his life because a Muslim may be secure in Dār al-Ḥarb and that will not stop it from being Dār al-Ḥarb and will not necessitate it being Dār al-Islām."
"As for the reasoning of Abū Ḥanīfah's view in giving consideration to the three things that we described, it is that when it is not contiguous with Dār al-Ḥarb and there is Dār al-Islām surrounding it, the dominance has no ruling because it still comes under the force of the Muslims so is like an army of people from Dār al-Ḥarb resorting to a Muslim fort with the Muslim armies surrounding them – their acquisition of the fort would not convert the fort into Dār al-Ḥarb while the Muslim armies surround them. Similar is a city the residents of which apostatise or its residents overpower it while there are Islāmic cities surrounding it – it is obvious that the force of Islām remains there because they surround them. He also considered the enforcement of laws because the place which an army has acquired from the plots of Dār al-Islām, even if contiguous with Dār al-Ḥarb, will not become Dār al-Ḥarb because they are unable to enforce their rule. Similar is the Muslim army when it enters Dār al-Ḥarb – the plot they acquire will not become Dār al-Islām for as long as they are not able to enforce their rules. He also considered that there not remain a Muslim or Dhimmī secure over his life because being secure over his life makes the place remain in the ruling of Dār al-Islām as it was, and that would prevent it from changing into the ruling of Dār al-Ḥarb."Al-Jassas then concludes:
"I believe that Abū Ḥanīfah only said this based on the conditions that existed in his time when Muslims fought idolaters. It was not possible according to him that a Dār alḤarb could exist in the middle of the abode of Muslims, where the inhabitants apostatise and despite the armies of the sultan surrounding them remain strong and have loyal subjects. Had he seen what has happened in this time, where people are negligent of Jihād and betray one another and those in leadership are engaged in corruption and show enmity to Islām and its adherents and belittle the command of Jihād and its due, he would say the same thing as Abū Yūsuf and Muḥammad about a town like al-Qirmiṭī, and in fact many towns like it which we dislike to mention here." (Sharḥ Mukhtaṣar al-Ṭaḥāwī, 7:215-8).
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