فإن الخمر حرّمت سنة ثلاث بعد أُحُد، باتفاق الناسHowever, they differed about the exact time of the battle, and most of them said it was in the third year after the Hijra. By examining the historical development of the issue of khamr in Islam, there are three stages can be traced to the successive prohibition of khamr in Islam. Imam al-Razi mentioned in his tafsir these stages as follow.
"Khamr was prohibited in the third year after Uhud by the agreement of people (scholars)." (Ibn Taymiyah, Majmu al-Fatawa, Vol. 8, p. 55)
وَمِن ثَمَرَاتِ النَّخِيلِ وَالْأَعْنَابِ تَتَّخِذُونَ مِنْهُ سَكَرًا وَرِزْقًا حَسَنًا (النحل 67)During this stage, people used to drink khamr and it was lawful.
And (We grant you nourishment) from the fruit of date-palms and vines: from it you derive intoxicants as well as wholesome sustenance (al-Naḥl:67)
لَا أَعْبُدُ مَا تَعْبُدُونَthe imam recited, "We worship what you worship."
"We (Muslims) don't worship what you worship (the idols)," (Al-Kafrun:2)
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ لاَ تَقْرَبُواْ الصَّلَوةَ وَأَنتُمْ سُكَـرَى (النساء 43)Later, the final prohibition comes when Uthman ibn Affan invited a group of Ansars, and after drinking, they had an argument which leads to a physical quarrel. Thus, Umar, he said, "O Allah! Give us a clear ruling regarding khamr.'' Soon after, Allah sent the verse :
O you who have believed, do not approach prayer while you are intoxicated. (Nisa':43)
يَـأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ إِنَّمَا الْخَمْرُ وَالْمَيْسِرُ وَالاٌّنصَابُ وَالاٌّزْلاَمُ رِجْسٌ مِّنْ عَمَلِ الشَّيْطَـنِ فَاجْتَنِبُوهُ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ - إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ الشَّيْطَـنُ أَن يُوقِعَ بَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةَ وَالْبَغْضَآءَ فِى الْخَمْرِ وَالْمَيْسِرِ وَيَصُدَّكُمْ عَن ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَعَنِ الصَّلَوةِ فَهَلْ أَنْتُمْ مُّنتَهُونَ (المائدة 90-91)Satan only wants to cause between you animosity and hatred through intoxicants and gambling and to avert you from the remembrance of Allah and from prayer. So will you not desist? (Ma'idah: 90-91) (Razi, al-Tafsir al-Kabir, vol. 6, p. 43)
O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants, gambling, (sacrificing on) stone alters (to other than Allah), and divining arrows are but defilement from the work of Satan, so avoid it that you may be successful. (Qur'an 5:90)
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