In a Nutshell: According to the Shafi'i madhab dar al-Islam is any land where the Islam is dominant and Islamic Shar'iah is applied, and if these conditions are not met, it is dar al-kufr.
Islam refers to a communal way of living, a discursive tradition intimately tied to power where Muslims are expected to socially and territorially embody Islam (in dar al-Islam) - acknowledging, submitting and serving Allah.
Islam thus comprises an environment derived from revelation, adapting to and reflecting the needs of the times, where every individual chooses their way of life and freely lives by it.
In this answer, we will examine the views of the Shafi'i madhab in the division of the world into dar al-Islam and dar al-harb.
1. وَالَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالْإِيمَانَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ يُحِبُّونَ مَنْ هَاجَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ
And [also for] those who were settled in al-Medinah and [adopted] the faith before them. They love those who emigrated to them… (Qur'an 59: 9)
2. إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنفُسِهِمْ قَالُوا فِيمَ كُنتُمْ ۖ قَالُوا كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ قَالُوا أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ اللَّهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُوا فِيهَا
Indeed, those whom the angels take [in death] while wronging themselves - [the angels] will say, "In what [condition] were you?" They will say, "We were oppressed in the land." The angels will say, "Was not the earth of Allah spacious [enough] for you to emigrate therein?" (Qur'an 4:97)
3. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا جَاءَكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ مُهَاجِرَاتٍ فَامْتَحِنُوهُنَّ ۖ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَانِهِنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ عَلِمْتُمُوهُنَّ مُؤْمِنَاتٍ فَلَا تَرْجِعُوهُنَّ إِلَى الْكُفَّارِ ۖ لَا هُنَّ حِلٌّ لَّهُمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحِلُّونَ لَهُنَّ
O you who have believed, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them. Allah is most knowing as to their faith. And if you know them to be believers, then do not return them to the disbelievers; they are not lawful [wives] for them, nor are they lawful [husbands] for them. (Qur'an 60:10)
4. ...سَأُرِيكُمْ دَارَ الْفَاسِقِينَ
I will show you the home of the defiantly disobedient. (Qur'an 7:145)
1. Ibn Buraidah narrated that his father said:
كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذَا أَمَّرَ رَجُلاً عَلَى سَرِيَّةٍ أَوْصَاهُ فِي خَاصَّةِ نَفْسِهِ بِتَقْوَى اللَّهِ وَمَنْ مَعَهُ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ خَيْرًا فَقَالَ " اغْزُوا بِاسْمِ اللَّهِ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ .. ثمّ ادعهم إلى الإسلامِ، فإنْ أجابوك، فاقبلْ منهم، وكُفَّ عنهم، ثمّ ادعهم إلى التّحوّل مِن دارهم إلى دار المهاجرين...
Whenever he appointed a man to lead a military detachment, the Messenger of Allah (saw) would advise him especially to fear Allah and treat the Muslims with him well. He (saw) said: 'Fight in the Name of Allah and in the cause of Allah…Then invite them to leave their land and move to the land of the emigrants (i.e. land of Islam). (Musnad Abu Hanifah, 566; Ibn Majah, 24:2967)
In another version narrated by Muhamad ibn al-Hasan he said:
وادعوهم إلى التحول إلى دار الإسلام
Then invite them to move to dar al-Islam (abode of Islam)
2. The Prophet (saw) said:
لا يقبل الله عزّ وجلّ من مُشرك بعدمَا أسْلَمَ عَمَلاً، أوْ يُفارق المشاركين إلى المُسْلِمِينَ
Allah does not accept any deed from an idolater after he becomes a Muslim, until he departs from the idolaters and joins the Muslims. (Nasa'i 23:1)
3. The Prophet (saw) described Sham as:
عُقْرُ دَارِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الشَّامُ
The center for the believers is Ash-Sham. (Nasa'i 28:1)
1. Ibn Abbas (ra) said:
كان مِن الأنصار مهاجرون؛ لأنّ المدينةَ كانت دارَ شرك، فجاءوا إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ليلةَ العقبة
There were emigrants among the Ansar because Medinah was dar shirk. They came to the Prophet (saw) during the night of Aqabah. (Nasa'i)
2. The letter of Khalid bin Walid mentions:
…ما أقام بدار الهجرة ودار الإسلام؛ فإنْ خرجوا إلى غير دار الهجرة ودار الإسلام؛ فليس على المسلمين النّفقةُ على عيالهم
...as long as he lives in the Dar al-Hijrah and Dar al-Islam. If they leave the dar of the Muhajirs, the Dar al-Islam, then the Muslims are not obliged to maintain his family." (Abu Ubaid, al-Amwaal, p. 98; Abu Yusuf, al-Kharaaj, pp. 155-156)
Imam Shafi'i stated:
وإذا ظهر المسلمون على بلاد الحرب حتى تصير دار الإسلام، أو ذمة يجري عليها الحكم ..
When the Muslim state overcomes dar al-harb, then it becomes dar al-Islam or dar a-Dhimmah where it is governed by the [Islamic] law.. (Al-Umm, Vol. 4, p. 371)
Thus, according to Imam Shafi'i (d. 204/820), a land could be called dar aI-Islam if a Muslim state overcomes non-Muslim authority therein.
Another great Shafi'i jurist, Al-Mawardi (d. 450/1058), while illustrating the reasons enemies should be fought, stated:
وتصير بلادهم إذا أسلموا دار الإسلام، يجري عليهم حكم الإسلام.
Their [non-Muslim] lands become a dar al-Islam when they embrace Islam and such land will be governed by the Islamic Shari'a. (Al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyah, pp. 49-50)
Thus, according to Al-Mawardi, a non-Muslim land turns into dar Al-Islam if its inhabitants embrace Islam and consequently this land will be governed by the Islamic Shari'a.
Also, the Shafi'i jurist Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi (d. 429/1037) viewed:
كل دار ظهرت فيه دعوة الاسلام من اهله بلا خفير ولا مجير ولا بذل جزية ونفذ فيها حكم المسلمين على اهل الذمة ان كان فيهم ذمّىّ ولم يقهر اهل البدعة فيها اهل السنة فهى دار الاسلام. واذا كان الامر على ضد ما ذكرناه في الدار فهي دار الكفر.
Every territory, where the Muslim deen is propagated and Islamic Shari'a is applied to dhimmis, and where the unlawful innovators (ahl al-bid'a), if there are any, do not dominate ahl as-Sunnah (Sunnis), is dar al-Islam; and if these conditions are not met, it is dar af-kufr. (Usul al-Din, p. 270)
Based on the above-mentioned citations, there are two basic conditions to classify a land as dar al-Islam according to the Shafi'i madhab. Firstly, the ruling authority should be in Muslim hands. Secondly, the ruling regulations should be based on the Islamic Shari'a.
According to the Shafi'i madhab dar al-Islam is any land where Islam is dominant and Islamic Shar'iah is applied, and if these conditions are not met, it is dar al-kufr.
Abdul Allah al-Juda'i, Taqsim al-Ma'murah fi al-Fiqh al-Islami
Abu Mansur al-Baghdadi, Usul al-Din
Abu Ubaid, Al-Amwaal
Abu Yusuf, Al-Kharaaj
Al-Mawardi, Al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyyah
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