Notice: session_start(): ps_files_cleanup_dir: opendir(/tmp/.priv) failed: Permission denied (13) in /homepages/9/d507912324/htdocs/islamiqa/qa-include/app/users.php on line 163
How do the Hanbali scholars define dar al-Islam and dar al-harb (lands of Islam and non-Islam)? - Islamiqate Fiqh (Jurisprudence),schools of thought,dar al-harb (territory of war),dar al-islam (territory of islam)
«
2
Helpful
»
0
Unhelpful
in category Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

How do the Hanbali scholars define dar al-Islam and dar al-harb (lands of Islam and non-Islam)?

1 Answer
1 Answer
by
(9.9k points):

Islamic researcher, graduated from Al-Azhar University, Islamic Studies in English.
1 Helpful
0 Unhelpful
In a Nutshell: There is only one basic criterion for differentiating between dar al-Islam and dar al-kufr according to the Hanbali madhab, namely, the predominance or absence of the laws of Islam in that land. According to the Hanbali general position of the Hanbali madhab, dar al-Islam is any land where Islamic law is dominant and dar al-kufr is any land where kufr law is dominant.


Introduction

Islam refers to a communal way of living, a discursive tradition intimately tied to power where Muslims are expected to socially and territorially embody Islam (in dar al-Islam) - acknowledging, submitting and serving Allah.

Islam thus comprises an environment derived from revelation, adapting to and reflecting the needs of the times, where every individual chooses their way of life and freely lives by it.

In this answer, we will examine the views of the Hanbali madhab in the division of the world into dar al-Islam and dar al-harb.

Evidences

Qur'an

1. وَالَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالْإِيمَانَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ يُحِبُّونَ مَنْ هَاجَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ

And [also for] those who were settled in al-Madinah and [adopted] the faith before them. They love those who emigrated to them… (Qur'an 59: 9)

2. إِنَّ الَّذِينَ تَوَفَّاهُمُ الْمَلَائِكَةُ ظَالِمِي أَنفُسِهِمْ قَالُوا فِيمَ كُنتُمْ ۖ قَالُوا كُنَّا مُسْتَضْعَفِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ قَالُوا أَلَمْ تَكُنْ أَرْضُ اللَّهِ وَاسِعَةً فَتُهَاجِرُوا فِيهَا

Indeed, those whom the angels take [in death] while wronging themselves - [the angels] will say, "In what [condition] were you?" They will say, "We were oppressed in the land." The angels will say, "Was not the earth of Allah spacious [enough] for you to emigrate therein?" (Qur'an 4:97)

3. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا جَاءَكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ مُهَاجِرَاتٍ فَامْتَحِنُوهُنَّ ۖ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَانِهِنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ عَلِمْتُمُوهُنَّ مُؤْمِنَاتٍ فَلَا تَرْجِعُوهُنَّ إِلَى الْكُفَّارِ ۖ لَا هُنَّ حِلٌّ لَّهُمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحِلُّونَ لَهُنَّ

O you who have believed, when the believing women come to you as emigrants, examine them. Allah is most knowing as to their faith. And if you know them to be believers, then do not return them to the disbelievers; they are not lawful [wives] for them, nor are they lawful [husbands] for them. (Qur'an 60:10)

4. ...سَأُرِيكُمْ دَارَ الْفَاسِقِينَ

I will show you the home of the defiantly disobedient. (Qur'an 7:145)

Sunnah

1. Ibn Buraidah narrated that his father said:

كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذَا أَمَّرَ رَجُلاً عَلَى سَرِيَّةٍ أَوْصَاهُ فِي خَاصَّةِ نَفْسِهِ بِتَقْوَى اللَّهِ وَمَنْ مَعَهُ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ خَيْرًا فَقَالَ ‏ "‏ اغْزُوا بِاسْمِ اللَّهِ وَفِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ .. ثمّ ادعهم إلى الإسلامِ، فإنْ أجابوك، فاقبلْ منهم، وكُفَّ عنهم، ثمّ ادعهم إلى التّحوّل مِن دارهم إلى دار المهاجرين...

Whenever he appointed a man to lead a military detachment, the Messenger of Allah (saw) would advise him especially to fear Allah and treat the Muslims with him well. He (saw) said: 'Fight in the Name of Allah and in the cause of Allah…Then invite them to leave their land and move to the land of the emigrants (i.e. land of Islam). (Musnad Abu Hanifah, 566; Ibn Majah, 24:2967)

In another version narrated by Muhamad ibn al-Hasan he said:

وادعوهم إلى التحول إلى دار الإسلام

Then invite them to move to dar al-Islam (abode of Islam)

2. The Prophet (saw) said:

لا يقبل الله عزّ وجلّ من مُشرك بعدمَا أسْلَمَ عَمَلاً، أوْ يُفارق المشاركين إلى المُسْلِمِينَ

Allah does not accept any deed from an idolater after he becomes a Muslim, until he departs from the idolaters and joins the Muslims. (Nasa'i 23:1)

3. The Prophet (saw) described Sham as:

عُقْرُ دَارِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ الشَّامُ

The center for the believers is Ash-Sham. (Nasa'i 28:1)

Sahabah

1. Ibn Abbas (ra) said:

كان مِن الأنصار مهاجرون؛ لأنّ المدينةَ كانت دارَ شرك، فجاءوا إلى رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم ليلةَ العقبة

There were emigrants among the Ansar because Madinah was dar shirk. They came to the Prophet (saw) during the night of Aqabah. (Nasa'i)

2. The letter of Khalid bin Walid mentions:

…ما أقام بدار الهجرة ودار الإسلام؛ فإنْ خرجوا إلى غير دار الهجرة ودار الإسلام؛ فليس على المسلمين النّفقةُ على عيالهم

...as long as he lives in the Dar al-Hijrah and Dar al-Islam. If they leave the dar of the Muhajirs, the Dar al-Islam, then the Muslims are not obliged to maintain his family." (Abu Ubaid, al-Amwaal, p. 98; Abu Yusuf, al-Kharaaj, pp. 155-156)


Juristic Views

According to the Hanbali madhab, the main basic criterion on differentiating between dar al-Islam and dar al-kufr is the predominance or absence of the laws of Islam in that land.

According to qadi Abi Ya'la (d. 458/ 1066):

كلُّ دارٍ كانت الغلبةُ فيها لأحكام الإسلام دون الكفرِ فهي دارُ الإسلام، وكل دار كانت الغلبة فيها لأحكام الكفر دون أحكام الإسلام فهي دار الكفر.

Every land, where the laws of Islam predominate in the absence of the laws of infidels, is dar al-Islam, and conversely, where the laws of the infidels predominate in the absence of the laws of Islam, there is dar al-kufr. (Abu Ya'la, al-Mu'tamad fi Usil al-Din, p. 276.)

Ibn al-Qayyim (d. 751/1350) also states:

قَالَ الْجُمْهُورُ: دَارُ الْإِسْلَامِ هِيَ الَّتِي نَزَلَهَا الْمُسْلِمُونَ، وَجَرَتْ عَلَيْهَا أَحْكَامُ الْإِسْلَامِ، وَمَا لَمْ تَجْرِ عَلَيْهِ أَحْكَامُ الْإِسْلَامِ لَمْ يَكُنْ دَارَ إِسْلَامٍ.

The majority of jurists view dar al-Isalm is a territory, where Muslims live, and where Islamic laws are implemented. If Islamic laws are not applied, it cannot be said to be Islamic territory, even if it is close to dar al-Islam. (Ibn al-Qayyim, Ahkam ahl al-dhimma, Vol. 2, p. 728)

Another hanbali scholars, Ibn Muflih (d. 763/1362), said:

فَكُلّ دَار غَلَبَ عَلَيْهَا أَحْكَام الْمُسْلِمِينَ فَدَارُ الْإِسْلَام وَإِنْ غَلَبَ عَلَيْهَا أَحْكَام الْكُفَّار فَدَارُ الْكُفْر وَلَا دَارَ لِغَيْرِهِمَا.

Any land where Islamic law is dominant is dar al-Islam, and any land where kufr law is dominant is dar al-kufr, there are only these two camps. (Al-Adab al-Shar'yah, Vol. 1, p. 190)

Similarly, the Hanbali jurist al-Maradawi (d. 885/1480) adopts the same criterion of the predominance and absence of the laws of Islam:

ودار الحرب: ما يغلب فيها حكم الكفر

Dar al-Harb is where kufr law is dominant. (Al-Insaf, Vol. 4, p. 122)

It is worthy to note that Ibn Taymyyiah (d. 728/1328( introduced a third category in the classification of lands. Ibn Taymyyiah, when asked about the status of Mardin (a city in today's Turkey), whether it is dar al-Islam or dar al-harb, he replied:

وَأَمَّا كَوْنُهَا دَارَ حَرْبٍ أَوْ سِلْمٍ فَهِيَ مُرَكَّبَةٌ: فِيهَا الْمَعْنَيَانِ؛ لَيْسَتْ " بِمَنْزِلَةِ دَارِ السِّلْمِ الَّتِي تَجْرِي عَلَيْهَا أَحْكَامُ الْإِسْلَامِ؛ لِكَوْنِ جُنْدِهَا مُسْلِمِينَ؛ وَلَا بِمَنْزِلَةِ دَارِ الْحَرْبِ الَّتِي أَهْلُهَا كُفَّارٌ؛ بَلْ هِيَ قِسْمٌ ثَالِثٌ يُعَامَلُ الْمُسْلِمُ فِيهَا بِمَا يَسْتَحِقُّهُ وَيُقَاتَلُ الْخَارِجُ عَنْ شَرِيعَةِ الْإِسْلَامِ بِمَا يَسْتَحِقُّهُ.

On the question of whether it is dar al-harb or dar al-salam (peace territory), it is dar murakabah (composite territory), there are two aspects to that territory: it is not dar al-salam, where Islamic laws (ahkam al-Islam) are applied, although its soldiers are Muslims, nor is it dar al-harb, where the inhabitants are infidels; but there is a third option, where a Muslim is properly treated and someone deviating from the Shari'ah will be fought. (Majmu al-Fatawa, Vol. 28, pp. 241-1)

Ibn Taymiyyah here introduces a third category that was not mentioned by previous Hanbali jurists, nor was it taken up by his successors.

Analysis

Based on the above-quoted definitions, there is only one basic criterion in the categorization of land according to the Hanbali school which is the predominance or absence of the laws of Islam in this land.​​​​​​​

Conclusion

According to the Hanbali madhab dar al-Islam is any land where Islamic law is dominant and dar al-kufr is any land where kufr law is dominant.​​​​​​​

References

Abu Ubaid, al-Amwaal
​​​​​​​Abu Ya'la, al-Mu'tamad fi Usil al-Din
Al-Maradawi, Al-Insaf
​​​​​​​Ibn al-Qayyim, Ahkam ahl al-Dhimma
Ibn Muflih, Al-Adab al-Shar'yah
​​​​​​​Ibn Taymyyiah, Majmu al-Fatawah

​​​​​​​


User Settings


What we provide!

Vote Content

Great answers start with great insights. Content becomes intriguing when it is voted up or down - ensuring the best answers are always at the top.

Multiple Perspectives

Questions are answered by people with a deep interest in the subject. People from around the world review questions, post answers and add comments.

An authoritative community

Be part of and influence the most important global discussion that is defining our generation and generations to come

Join Now !

Update chat message

Message

Delete chat message

Are you sure you want to delete this message?

...