Literature: Ahkam al-Sultaniyya (Mawardi)
Abu al-Hasan Ali Ibn Muhammed Ibn Habib al-Mawardi (أبو الحسن علي بن محمد بن حبيب البصري الماوردي)known in Latin as Alboacen (972-1058), was a Islamic jurist of the Shafi'i school most remembered for his works on religion, government, the caliphate and public and constitutional law during a time of political turmoil. Appointed as the chief judge over several districts near Nishapur in Iran and Baghdad itself, al-Mawardi also served as a diplomat for the Abbasid caliphs al-Qa'im and al-Qadir in negotiations with the Buyid emirs. A symbol of his contributions here, he is well remembered for his treatise on "The Ordinances of Government." The Ordinances, Al-Ahkam al-Sultaniyya w'al-Wilayat al-Diniyya, provide a detailed a definition of the functions of caliphate government.