Yes, the Khulafa' al-Rashidun used the banner and the flag of Islam. The evidence for that is what was narrated from the Messenger of Allah (saw) that his banner was al-Uqab and his flag was white. From this evidence is the following:
1. Al-Nasa'i reported in his Sunan al-Kubra and al-Tirmidhi from Jabir, that the Prophet (saw):
«دَخَلَ مَكَّةَ وَلِوَاؤُهُ أَبْيَضُ»
"He entered Mecca and his banner was white."
Ibn Abi Shaybah in his work reported from 'Amrah, who said:
«كَانَ لِوَاءُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أَبْيَضَ»
"The flag of the Messenger of Allah (saw) was white."
2. It is reported by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and Al-Nasa'i in his Sunan al-Kubra from Yunus Bin 'Obaid, whose master was Muhammed Bin al-Qasim, who said: "Muhammed Bin al-Qasim sent me to Al-Bara' Bin 'Azib to ask him what the banner of the Messenger of Allah (saw) is. He said:
«كَانَتْ سَوْدَاءَ مُرَبَّعَةً مِنْ نَمِرَةٍ»
"It was a black square of fabric."
3. Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah reported from Ibn Abbas, who said:
«كَانَتْ رَايَةُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ سَوْدَاءَ، وَلِوَاؤُهُ أَبْيَضَ»
"The banner of the Messenger of Allah (saw) was black and his flag was white."
4. Ibn Abi Shaybah reported in his work from al-Hassan, who said:
«كَانَتْ رَايَةُ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ سَوْدَاءَ تُسَمَّى الْعُقَابَ»
"The banner of the Prophet (saw) was black and called 'al-Uqab'."
This suffices as evidence to show that the Khulafa' al-Rashidun followed the example of the Messenger of Allah (saw)with the banner and the flag. They would not leave a matter announced by the Prophet (saw)except that they would abide by it. There is no need for further research on the banner and flag under the reign of the Kulafa' al-Rashidun, for two reasons:
First: Because the Hukm Shar'i is taken from the Prophet (saw).
Second: The Khulafa' al-Rashidun did not leave a remarkable act done by the Messenger of Allah (saw) such as the banner and the flag.
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