جَاءَ رَجُلٌ مِنْ حَضْرَمَوْتَ وَرَجُلٌ مِنْ كِنْدَةَ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ r، فَقَالَ الْحَضْرَمِيُّ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، إِنَّ هَذَا قَدْ غَلَبَنِي عَلَى أَرْضٍ لِي كَانَتْ لأَبِي، فَقَالَ الْكِنْدِيُّ: هِيَ أَرْضِي فِي يَدِي أَزْرَعُهَا لَيْسَ لَهُ فِيهَا حَقٌّ، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ r لِلْحَضْرَمِيِّ: أَلَكَ بَيِّنَةٌ؟ قَالَ: لاَ، قَالَ: فَلَكَ يَمِينُهُ، قَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، إِنَّ الرَّجُلَ فَاجِرٌ لا يُبَالِي عَلَى مَا حَلَفَ عَلَيْهِ وَلَيْسَ يَتَوَرَّعُ مِنْ شَيْءٍ، فَقَالَ: لَيْسَ لَكَ مِنْهُ إِلاَّ ذَلِكَBayhaqi also related with a sahih (authentic) chain of authorities that the Prophet (saw) said:
"A man from Hadhramawt and a man from Kindah came to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and the Hadhrami said: "O Messenger of Allah, this man has taken from a land which belonged to my father."
The Kindi said: "It is my land, it is in my possession and I am farming it. He has no claim over it."
The Messenger of Allah (saw) said to the Hadhrami: "Do you have any proof?" He said: "No."
Upon this the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "In this case you have his oath."
He said: "O Messenger of Allah! He is a rebel, he does not care what he swears and he does not fear of anything."
He (saw) said: "You have no other rights over him but this." (Muslim)
الْبَيِّنَةُ عَلَى الْمُدَّعِي ، وَالْيَمِينُ عَلَى مَنْ أَنْكَرْIn the first hadith, the Prophet (saw) commissioned the plaintiff with proof, meaning a defendant is innocent until proven guilty; in the second hadith, he (saw) explained the proof should be provided by the plaintiff.
"The proof lies with the plaintiff and that of the oath lies with the defendant." (Bayhaqi)
وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ بِغَيْرِ مَا اكْتَسَبُوا فَقَدِ احْتَمَلُوا بُهْتَاناً وَإِثْماً مُبِيناًb. Muslim narrated in his Sahih from Hisham ibn Hakim ibn Hizam, He said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (saw) saying:
"And those who harm believing men and believing women for [something] other than what they have earned have certainly born upon themselves a slander and manifest sin." (Qur'an al-Ahzaab: 58)
إِنَّ اللهَ يُعَذِّبُ الَّذِينَ يُعَذِّبُونَ فِي الدُّنْيَاc. Muslim narrated in his Sahih from Abu Hurayrah said: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said:
"Allah would torture those who torture people in this world." (Muslim)
صِنْفَانِ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ لَمْ أَرَهُمَا، قَوْمٌ مَعَهُمْ سِيَاطٌ كَأَذْنَابِ الْبَقَرِ يَضْرِبُونَ بِهَا النَّاسَ...
"There are two types of the people of Hell I have not seen yet: men with whips like the tails of cattle, with which they strike the people..." (Muslim)
إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَدْ تَجَاوَزَ عَنْ أُمَّتِي الْخَطَأَ، وَالنِّسْيَانَ، وَمَا اسْتُكْرِهُوا عَلَيْهِWhatever one is forced to do under duress is not punishable.
Verily Allah has pardoned [or been lenient with] for me my ummah: their mistakes, their forgetfulness and that did under duress." (Ibn Majah)
تَجَاوَزَ اللَّهُ عَنْ أُمَّتِي الْخَطَأَ، وَالنِّسْيَانَ، وَمَا اسْتُكْرِهُوا عَلَيْهِ
"Allah has pardoned [or been lenient with] for my ummah: their mistakes, their forgetfulness and that done under duress." (Hakim)
وَإِنَّ النَّارَ لا يُعَذِّبُ بِهَا إِلاَّ اللَّهُTherefore, if the accused were proven to be guilty before a competent judge and before a court of law, he should not be punished by fire, nor by that which is similar, such as electricity, nor by anything which Allah (swt) punishes with.
"And only Allah punishes with fire." (Abu Dawud)
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