أَجْمَعَ الْعُلَمَاءُ عَلَى أَنَّ الْمُطَلِّقَ لِلسُّنَّةِ فِي الْمَدْخُولِ بِهَا هُوَ الَّذِي يُطَلِّقُ امْرَأَتَهُ فِي طُهْرٍ لَمْ يَمَسَّهَا فِيهِ طَلْقَةً وَاحِدَةً، وَأَنَّ الْمُطَلِّقَ فِي الْحَيْضِ الَّذِي مَسَّهَا فِيهِ غَيْرُ مُطَلِّقٍ لِلسُّنَّةِSo, the best way to issue an irrevocable talaq is to give each talqah (of the three) separately in the wife's three purity states, ensuring he did not have intercourse with her in any of them.
"The jurists have unanimously agreed that Sunnah ordained talaq (regarding the consummated marriage) is to divorce the wife with one talqah in a tuhr in which he did not touch her and the one who divorces during the menses, he did not divorce according to the sunnah," (Ibn Rushd, Bidayar al-Mujtahid, Vol. 3, p. 86)
طَلاَقُ السُّنَّةِ تَطْلِيقَةٌ وَهِيَ طَاهِرٌ فِي غَيْرِ جِمَاعٍ فَإِذَا حَاضَتْ وَطَهُرَتْ طَلَّقَهَا أُخْرَى فَإِذَا حَاضَتْ وَطَهُرَتْ طَلَّقَهَا أُخْرَى ثُمَّ تَعْتَدُّ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ بِحَيْضَةٍBut Hanafis argued the best way of talaq is to give one talqah in a purity state and leave her until her iddah (the waiting period) ends, not three talaqat separately in each following purity state. (Badlahi, al-Ikhtiyar li-Ta'leel al-Mukhtaar, Vol. 3, p. 122, Mukhtasar al-Quduri, p. 154, Abu al-Hassan, Bidayat al-Mubtadi, p. 68)
"The Sunnah divorce is a divorce issued when she is pure (not menstruating) without having had intercourse with her.
If she menstruates and becomes pure again, give her another divorce (if you still insist divorcing her) and if she menstruates and becomes pure again, give her another divorce (if you still insist your decision of talaq), then after that, she should wait for another menstrual cycle." (Sunan al-Nasa'i 3394)
وَطَلاَقٌ الْحائِضَ وَالنُّفَسَاءِ مُحْرِمٌ وَيُلْزَمُ إِنْ وَقَعَ، وَيُجْبَرُ الْمُطْلِقُ عَلَى الرَّجْعَةِ فِيمَا كَانَ مِنْه رَجْعَِيًا ثُمَّ لَيْسَ لَهُ أَنْ يُطْلِقَ إلّا أَنَّ تَطَهُّر مِنَ الْحَيْضَةِ الثَّانِيَةِ التَّالِيَةِ لِلْحَيْضَةِ الَّتِي طَلَّقً فِيهَاSimilarly, was noted by the Shafi'i jurist imam juwini who reported the agreement of scholars on it:
"It is haram (prohibited) to divorce the woman in menstruation or after child-birth (ha'id and nufasaa). When occurred, it is necessary to force the husband to take her back (raj'ah) when he has not yet finished the three talaqat.
He can only then divorce her after she is purified from the next following menses period after the hayd in which he divorced her." (Tha'labi, al-Talqeen fi al-Fiqh al-Maliki, Vol. 1, p. 125)
يَحْرُمُ عَلَى الرَّجُلِ أَنْ يُطْلِقَ زَوْجَتَهُ الْمَدْخُولِ بِهَا فِي زَمانِ الْحَيْضِ … هَذَا مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيهThe evidence used for this ijma is the famous incident of ibn Umar (ra) when he divorced his wife during her menses:
"It is haram against the husband to divorce his wife, with whom he consummated the marriage, during her menses … this notion is agreed upon." (Juwini, Nihayat al-Matlab fi Dirayat al-Madhab, Vol. 14, p. 4)
قُلْتُ لاِبْنِ عُمَرَ رَجُلٌ طَلَّقَ امْرَأَتَهُ وَهْىَ حَائِضٌ فَقَالَ أَتَعْرِفُ عَبْدَ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ فَإِنَّهُ طَلَّقَ امْرَأَتَهُ وَهْىَ حَائِضٌ فَأَتَى عُمَرُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَسَأَلَهُ فَأَمَرَهُ أَنْ يَرْجِعَهَا ثُمَّ تَسْتَقْبِلَ عِدَّتَهَا . قَالَ فَقُلْتُ لَهُ إِذَا طَلَّقَ الرَّجُلُ امْرَأَتَهُ وَهْىَ حَائِضٌ أَتَعْتَدُّ بِتِلْكَ التَّطْلِيقَةِ فَقَالَ فَمَهْ أَوَإِنْ عَجَزَ وَاسْتَحْمَقَ.For triple talaq there is an Ijmaa (consensus) of the companions and classical scholarship of madhahib on the triple divorce in one sitting is considered as an absolute irrevocable divorce (baynonah kubra) if the husband intended the three talaqat. But if he intended the affirmation (ta'keed) and not issuing the rest of talaqat, it would be counted as only one talqah. If a judge or a mufti issued a judgement to the contrary, it has to be nullified.
"I said to Ibn 'Umar (Allah be pleased with them): A person divorced his wife while she was in the state of menses, whereupon he said: Do you know 'Abdullah b. Umar (Allah be pleased with them), for the divorced his wife in the state of menses. 'Umar (Allah be pleased with him) came to Allah's Apostle (saw) and asked him, and he (the Holy Prophet) commanded him that he should take her back, and she started her 'idah. I said to him: When a person divorces his wife, and she is in the state of menses, should that pronouncement of divorce be counted? He said: Why not, was he hopeless or foolish?" (Sahih Muslim 3484)
فَطَلَقَهَا ثَلَاثًا قَبْلَ أَنَّ يَمُرْهُ رَسُولَ اللهِThe point here that he issued a triple divorce in one sitting with no objection (which is in fact an approval) of the Prophet (saw). So, if the marriage was unbroken, but he Prophet (saw) did not condemn his action, so it is not forbidden. (Ibn Rushd, Bidayar al-Mujtahid, Vol. 3, p. 86, Al-Haytami, Tuhfat al-Muhtaj, p. 385, Ibn Hazm, al-Muhala, Vol. 9, p. 390)
"He divorced her three times before the Messenger of Allah could have ordered him." (Muslim 3553-3555, Bukhari 5259, Nasa'i 3402and others)
يا رَسُولٌ اللَّهِ رَأَيْتَ لَوْ أَنَِّي طَلَقْتُهَا ثَلَاثًا أَكَانَ يَحِلُّ لِي أَنْ أُرَاجِعَهَا، قَال: لَا كَانَتْ تَبَين مِنْكَ وَتَكُونُ مَعْصِيَةَIn another hadith when one of the sons Ubadah ibn al-Samit (ra) divorced his wife 100 times in one sitting, he asked the Prophet (saw) who replied:
"O Messenger of Allah, what if I had divorced her three times, would it have been legally valid for me to take her back her? He (the Prophet) said: no, she would have become irrevocably divorced (banat) and it would be a sin." (Darqutni 3488 and others)
بَانَتْ بِثَلَاثٍ فِي مَعْصِيَةٍ، وَتِسْعُمِائَةٍ وَسَبْعٌ وَتِسْعُونَ فِيمَا لَا يَمْلِكُThe Hanafi jurist al-Jasas noted:
"She was irrevocably divorced with three of them, but he does not have the authority to issue 97 talaqat whom he does't own." (Badlahi, al-Ikhtiyar li-Ta'leel al-Mukhtaar, Vol. 3, p. 122)
وَأَنَّ جَمْعُ الثَّلاثِ مَعْصِيَةً؛ لِقُوّلِهِ عَلَيهِ الصَّلاَةِ وَالسّلامِ : فَتَكُونُ مَعْصِيَةً.Similarly, other jurists argued the same in the above quoted literature except for Shafi'i texts.
"Triple talaq is a sin because the Prophet (saw) said (regarding it): it would be a sin." (Abu Bakr al-Jasas, Sharh mukhtasar al-Tahawi, Vol. 5, 19)
اتَفَقَ حَمَلَةُ الشَّرِيعَةِ عَلَى أَنَّ الطَّلاَقَ - وَإِنَّ كَانَ مُحَرَّمًا - نَافِذٌ، وَلَا اِكْتِرَاثَ بِمُخَالَفَةِ الشِّيعَةِ فِي ذَلِكَThis answer was co-authored with Muhammad Talaat, a Master student of comparative jurisprudence at Al-Azhar University.
"The carriers of shari'ah (classical scholars) agreed that (the triple) talaq – even if prohibited – it is executed and there is no weight for the disagreement of Shiites on this." (Juwini, al-Diraysh, Vol. 14, p. 8)
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