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What does the phrase which appears in many hadith mean: "dies the death of jahilliyah"?

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Masters in Education from Nottingham University in the UK. Also studied Masters in Islamic Studies and Islamic Banking & Finance. Political activist with interests in Geopolitics, History and Phil ...
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In a Nutshell: So the death of jahiliyyah means a death similar to those who lived in pre-Islamic times where the deens were sourced in ignorance rather than revelation.

This phrase appears in many hadith of the Prophet (saw) that ask we give the pledge of allegiance of a ruling caliph or imam:

قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم من مات بغير امام مات ميتة جاهلية
The Messenger (saw) said: Whoever died without an Imam he dies a death of jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic times). (Musnad Ahmed Vol. 4, p. 96)

جَاءَ عبدُ اللهِ بنُ عُمَرَ إلى عبدِ اللهِ بنِ مُطِيعٍ حِينَ كانَ مِن أَمْرِ الحَرَّةِ ما كَانَ، زَمَنَ يَزِيدَ بنِ مُعَاوِيَةَ، فَقالَ: اطْرَحُوا لأَبِي عبدِ الرَّحْمَنِ وِسَادَةً، فَقالَ: إنِّي لَمْ آتِكَ لأَجْلِسَ، أَتَيْتُكَ لِأُحَدِّثَكَ حَدِيثًا سَمِعْتُ رَسولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عليه وَسَلَّمَ يقولُهُ: سَمِعْتُ رَسولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عليه وَسَلَّمَ يقولُ: مَن خَلَعَ يَدًا مِن طَاعَةٍ، لَقِيَ اللَّهَ يَومَ القِيَامَةِ لا حُجَّةَ له، وَمَن مَاتَ وَليسَ في عُنُقِهِ بَيْعَةٌ، مَاتَ مِيتَةً جَاهِلِيَّةً.

The Messenger (saw) said, “Whoever dies without an oath of allegiance (bay'ah), dies the death of jahiliyya (pre-Islamic times).” (Muslim 1851).

The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "Whoever parts from obedience, and splits away from the jama’ah and dies, then he has died a death of jahiliyyah. Whoever rebels against my ummah, killing good and evil people alike, and does not try to avoid killing the believers, and does not pay attention to those who are under a covenant, then he is not of me. Whoever fights for a cause that is not clear, advocating tribalism, getting angry for the sake of tribalism, and he is killed, then he has died a death of jahiliyyah." (Sunan al-Nasa’i Vol. 5, Book 37, Hadith 4119)

The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "One who found in his amir something which he disliked should hold his patience, for the one who separated from the main body of the Muslims even to the extent of a hand span and then he died would die the death of one belonging to the days of jahiliyya (pre-Islamic times). (Muslim Vol. 20, No. 4559)

The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: "The one who defected from obedience and separated from the main body of the Muslim, if he died in that state would die the death of one belonging to the days of jahiliyya (pre-Islamic times). (Muslim Vol. 20, No. 4555)

The Messenger of Allah (saw) said, “Whoever removes his hands from the obedience or creates differences in the jama’ah dies the death of the jahiliyyah.” (Ahmad Vol. 9, p. 23)

The oath of allegiance (bay'ah) is obliged upon Muslims or their representatives and influentials (al-hall wa al-aqd).

If this does not happen, those who die will have deaths akin to those dying in the age of jahiliyyah. What does this mean?

Imam Ibn Hajr Asqalani(rah) stated:

“To die as those who died in the pre-Islamic period of ignorance(Jahiliyya) means the state of death: to die in a state of misguidance with no ruler to obey, as the inhabitants of that era had no such system of ruling. The hadith doesn’t mean that the Muslim will die as a kafir but as a disobeying Muslim.

This hadith has two possible definitions:

- To resemble between the state of death between the disobeying Muslim and the jahil, even if the Muslim was not in reality a jahil; or,

- To frighten and reprimand, and this meaning is not the apparent one.

Ibn Battal said:

This hadith is an argument to not disobey the ruler even if he is wronged. The scholars agreed unanimously on the obligation of obeying the empowered ruler and fighting under his commandment. As well as the scholars consider obeying the ruler is better than disobeying him as this act prevents bloodshed and mitigates masses. “ (Fath Al-Bari, commentary of #6530).

Conclusion

So the death of jahiliyyah means a death similar to those who lived in pre-Islamic times where the deens were sourced in ignorance rather than revelation.

After nearly fourteen centuries of Islamic rule we have once again returned to such an age.


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