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Masters in Education from Nottingham University in the UK. Also studied Masters in Islamic Studies and Islamic Banking & Finance. Political activist with interests in Geopolitics, History and Phil ...
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In a Nutshell: The rusul mentioned in the Qur'an comprise the following: Nuh (Noah), Hud (Eber), Saleh, Ibrahim (Abraham), Lut (Lot), Ismail (Ishmael), Yusuf (Joseph), Shuayb, Musa (Moses), Ilyas (Elijah), Yunus (Jonah), Isa (Jesus) and Muhammed

Introduction

There is a difference between a rasul (messenger) and a nabi (prophet) - the former is sent to a hostile nation whilst the latter is sent to a submissive nation.

The Messenger (saw) himself distinguished between both groups:

عَنْ أَبِي ذَرٍ قَالَ : قُلْتُ : يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، كَمْ الأْنِبَياء ؟ قال :مِائَةُ أَلْفٍ وَأَرْبَعَةٌ وَعِشْرُونَ أَلْفًا " قُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ: كَمِ الرُّسُلُ مِنْهُمْ؟ قَالَ: " ثَلَاثُمِائَةٍ وَثَلَاثَةَ عَشَرَ جَمٌّ غَفِيرٌ
The Messenger (saws) was asked by Abu Dharr about the number of Anbiya and Rusul. He (saws) replied there were 124,000 Prophets among whom 315 were Messengers. (Musnad Ahmad, Tabarani and ibn Hibban)

In another hadith, when the Prophet (saw) was teaching al-Bara a du'aa before sleeping:

قَالَ فَرَدَّدْتُهُنَّ لأَسْتَذْكِرَهُنَّ فَقُلْتُ آمَنْتُ بِرَسُولِكَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلْتَ قَالَ ‏"‏ قُلْ آمَنْتُ بِنَبِيِّكَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلْتَ ‏"
"And as I repeated these words to commit them to memory, I said:" I affirm my faith in your Messenger (rasool) whom you sent."
He said: Say:" I affirm my faith in the Prophet (nabi) whom you sent." (Muslim 6544)

The Prophet (saw) said prophet Adam (as) is a nabi:

أيُّ الأنبياءِ كان أوَّلَ؟ قال: آدمُ، قلتُ: يا رسولَ اللهِ، ونَبيٌّ كان؟ قال: نعمْ، نَبيٌّ مُكلَّمٌ
"Who was the first nabi?
He (the Prophet) sad: Adam.
I said, O Messenger of Allah: 'Was he a prophet?'
He replied, 'Yes a nabi whom Allah spoke to.'" (al-Mustadrak 2966)

The rusul mentioned in the Qur'an comprise the following:

  • Nuh (Noah)
  • Hud (Eber)
  • Saleh
  • Ibrahim (Abraham)
  • Lut (Lot)
  • Ismail (Ishmael)
  • Yusuf (Joseph)
  • Musa (Moses)
  • Ilyas (Elijah)
  • Yunus (Jonah)
  • Isa (Jesus)
  • Muhammed

Some are labelled ulul 'azmi (the rusul of strong will) and comprise Nuh, Ibrahim, Musa, Isa and Muhammad.

Evidences

Nuh (Noah)

اِنِّىۡ لَـكُمۡ رَسُوۡلٌ اَمِيۡنٌۙ‏ اِذۡ قَالَ لَهُمۡ اَخُوۡهُمۡ نُوۡحٌ اَلَا تَتَّقُوۡنَ​ۚ‏
Recall when their brother Noah said to them: "Do you have no fear? I am a trustworthy Messenger to you... (Qur'an 26:106-107)

وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ فَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُمْ مِنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرُهُ ۖ أَفَلَا تَتَّقُونَ
And We had certainly sent Noah to his people, and he said, "O my people, worship Allah ; you have no deity other than Him; then will you not fear Him?" (Qur'an 23:23)

وَقَوْمَ نُوحٍ لَمَّا كَذَّبُوا الرُّسُلَ أَغْرَقْنَاهُمْ وَجَعَلْنَاهُمْ لِلنَّاسِ آيَةً ۖ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا
And the people of Noah - when they denied the messengers, We drowned them, and We made them for mankind a sign... (Qur'an 25:37)


Hud

اِذۡ قَالَ لَهُمۡ اَخُوۡهُمۡ هُوۡدٌ اَلَا تَتَّقُوۡنَ​ۚ‏ اِنِّىۡ لَـكُمۡ رَسُوۡلٌ اَمِيۡنٌ​ۙ‏
Recall, when their brother Hud said to them:89 "Have you no fear? I am a trustworthy Messenger to you. (Qur'an 26:124)

لَمۡ يَاۡتِهِمۡ نَبَاُ الَّذِيۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِهِمۡ قَوۡمِ نُوۡحٍ وَّعَادٍ وَّثَمُوۡدَ  ۙ وَقَوۡمِ اِبۡرٰهِيۡمَ وَاَصۡحٰبِ مَدۡيَنَ وَالۡمُؤۡتَفِكٰتِ​ ؕ اَتَتۡهُمۡ رُسُلُهُمۡ بِالۡبَيِّنٰتِ​​
Have they not heard the accounts of those who came before them - of the people of Noah and 'Ad and Thamud, and the people of Abraham and the dwellers of Madyan (Midian), and the cities that were overturned? Their Messengers came to them with Clear Signs. (Qur'an 9:70)


Saleh

قَالَ الْمَلَأُ الَّذِينَ اسْتَكْبَرُوا مِنْ قَوْمِهِ لِلَّذِينَ اسْتُضْعِفُوا لِمَنْ آمَنَ مِنْهُمْ أَتَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ صَالِحًا مُرْسَلٌ مِنْ رَبِّهِ ۚ قَالُوا إِنَّا بِمَا أُرْسِلَ بِهِ مُؤْمِنُونَ
The elites who were arrogant among his people to those who were oppressed - to those who believed among them, "Do you [actually] know that Salih is sent from his Lord?" They said, "Indeed we, in that with which he was sent, are believers." (Qur'an 7:75)

فَعَقَرُوا النَّاقَةَ وَعَتَوْا عَنْ أَمْرِ رَبِّهِمْ وَقَالُوا يَا صَالِحُ ائْتِنَا بِمَا تَعِدُنَا إِنْ كُنْتَ مِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ
So they hamstrung the she-camel and were insolent toward the command of their Lord and said, "O Salih, bring us what you promise us, if you should be of the messengers." (Qur'an 7:77)


Ibrahim (Abraham)

لَمۡ يَاۡتِهِمۡ نَبَاُ الَّذِيۡنَ مِنۡ قَبۡلِهِمۡ قَوۡمِ نُوۡحٍ وَّعَادٍ وَّثَمُوۡدَ  ۙ وَقَوۡمِ اِبۡرٰهِيۡمَ وَاَصۡحٰبِ مَدۡيَنَ وَالۡمُؤۡتَفِكٰتِ​ ؕ اَتَتۡهُمۡ رُسُلُهُمۡ بِالۡبَيِّنٰتِ​​
Have they not heard the accounts of those who came before them - of the people of Noah and 'Ad and Thamud, and the people of Abraham and the dwellers of Madyan (Midian), and the cities that were overturned? Their Messengers came to them with Clear Signs. (Qur'an 9:70)

Lut (Lot)

وَإِنَّ لُوطًا لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ
And indeed, Lut was among the messengers (Qur'an 37:133)


Ismail (Ishmael)

وَاذۡكُرۡ فِى الۡـكِتٰبِ اِسۡمٰعِيۡلَ​ اِنَّهٗ كَانَ صَادِقَ الۡوَعۡدِ وَكَانَ رَسُوۡلًا نَّبِيًّا​ ۚ‏
And recite in the Book the account of Ishmael. He was ever true to his promise, and was a Messenger, a Prophet. (Qur'an 19:54)


Yusuf (Joseph)

وَلَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ يُوسُفُ مِنْ قَبْلُ بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ فَمَا زِلْتُمْ فِي شَكٍّ مِمَّا جَاءَكُمْ بِهِ حَتَّى إِذَا هَلَكَ قُلْتُمْ لَنْ يَبْعَثَ اللَّهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ رَسُولًا كَذَلِكَ يُضِلُّ اللَّهُ مَنْ هُوَ مُسْرِفٌ مُرْتَابٌ
And Yusuf had already come to you before with clear proofs, but you remained in doubt of that which he brought to you, until when he died, you said, 'Never will Allah send a messenger (rasool) after him.' Thus does Allah leave astray he who is a transgressor and sceptic. (Qur'an 40:34)


Shuayb

اِنِّىۡ لَـكُمۡ رَسُوۡلٌ اَمِيۡنٌۙ‏ اِذۡ قَالَ لَهُمۡ شُعَيۡبٌ اَلَا تَتَّقُوۡنَ​ۚ‏
Recall, when Shuayb said to them: "Have you no fear? I am a trustworthy Messenger to you... (Qur'an 26:177)

​​​​​​​
Musa (Moses)

وَاذۡكُرۡ فِى الۡكِتٰبِ مُوۡسٰٓى​ اِنَّهٗ كَانَ مُخۡلَصًا وَّكَانَ رَسُوۡلًا نَّبِيًّا‏
And recite in the Book the account of Moses.29 He was a chosen one, a Messenger, a Prophet... (Qur'an 19:51)

قَالَ إِنَّ رَسُولَكُمُ الَّذِي أُرْسِلَ إِلَيْكُمْ لَمَجْنُونٌ
[Pharaoh] said, "Indeed, your 'messenger' who has been sent to you is mad." (Qur'an 26:27)

يَا مُوسَىٰ لَا تَخَفْ إِنِّي لَا يَخَافُ لَدَيَّ الْمُرْسَلُونَ
[ Allah said], "O Moses, fear not. Indeed, in My presence the messengers do not fear... (Qur'an 27:10)


Ilyas (Elijah)

وَإِنَّ إِلْيَاسَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ
And indeed, Ilyas was from among the messengers... (Qur'an 37:123)


Yunus (Jonah)

وَإِنَّ يُونُسَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ
And indeed, Yunus was among the messengers... (Qur'an 37:139)


Isa (Jesus)

يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا تَغْلُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ وَلَا تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلَّا الْحَقَّ ۚ إِنَّمَا الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ
O People of the Scripture, do not commit excess in your religion or say about Allah except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, the son of Mary, was but a messenger of Allah... (Qur'an 4:171)

مَا الْمَسِيحُ ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ
The Messiah, son of Mary, was not but a messenger; [other] messengers have passed on before him... (Qur'an 5:75)


Muhammed

تِلْكَ آيَاتُ اللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِالْحَقِّ ۚ وَإِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ
These are the verses of Allah which We recite to you, [O Muhammad], in truth. And indeed, you are from among the messengers... (Qur'an 2:252)

إِنَّكَ لَمِنَ الْمُرْسَلِينَ
Indeed you, [O Muhammad], are from among the messengers... (Qur'an 36:3)

وَمَا مُحَمَّدٌ إِلَّا رَسُولٌ قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلِهِ الرُّسُلُ
Muhammad is not but a messenger. [Other] messengers have passed on before him... (Qur'an 3:144)


Conclusion

The rusul mentioned in the Qur'an comprise the following: Nuh (Noah), Hud (Eber), Saleh, Ibrahim (Abraham), Lut (Lot), Ismail (Ishmael), Yusuf (Joseph), Shuayb, Musa (Moses), Ilyas (Elijah), Yunus (Jonah), Isa (Jesus) and Muhammed.


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