The Ash’ari-Sunni tradition continued to produce scholarship right through the nineteenth century as well.
Despite Orientalism's dismissive remarks, the nineteenth century was one of great scholarly activity.
Some of these scholars include Hasan al-‘Attār (d. 1250 AH/ 1835 CE), Muhammad b. ‘Arafa al-Dusuqi (d. 1230 AH/ 1813 CE), Isma’il al-Hāmdi (d. 1316 AH/ 1898 CE), Ibrahim al-Bajuri (d. 1276 AH/1860 CE) and Muhammad ‘Ileysh (d. 1299 AH/ 1882 CE). Other scholars authoring works in kalam and logic were Abdul-Qadir al-Sanandji (d. 1304 AH/1886 CE), famous for his extensive commentary on Taftāzāni’s Tahdhib al-Kalam, Abdurrahman al-Panjiyuni (d. 1319 AH/1901 CE), and Umar b. Muhammad Amin al-Qaradaghi (d. 1936 CE).
Other notable authors from the twentieth century include Mahmud Abu-Daqiqa, whose three-volume work on kalam, al-Qawl a-Sadid (c. 1930), was a standard teaching text at al-Azhar for undergraduate students, and yet today it cannot be understood by many scholars speaking about metaphysics. It contains a relatively concise and readable summary of the central questions taken from the main kalam canon, works like Sharh al-Maqasid, Sharh al-Mawaqif, Sharh al-‘Aqaid al-Nasafiya, Sharh al-‘Aqaid al-‘Adudiya, Tawali’ al-Anwar, and their commentaries.
Other scholars of the twentieth century who engaged deeply with the rational tradition were the likes of Muhammad Zahid al-Kawthari and the last Shaykh al-Islam of the Ottoman Empire, Mustafa Sabri Efendi. The latter’s four-volume work on kalam, Mawqif al-‘Aql completed circa 1950, is one of the great intellectual feats of the age which critically engaged with the Islamic and Western philosophical traditions.
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