Angels in Islamic theology are amongst the beliefs in the unseen, the metaphysical (Ilm al-Ghayb).
Any details for such beliefs must be driven from the Islamic sources as they are unknowable to us through reason or empiricism.
Regarding beliefs in angels, we have no sources explaining their gender, nor whether they must be subjected to human and earthly standards or not. So, we cannot go further in any enquiry.
Allah criticised the disbelievers who claimed the angels were females, thereby prohibiting claims devoid of evidence, speculative at best:
وَجَعَلُوا الْمَلَائِكَةَ الَّذِينَ هُمْ عِبَادُ الرَّحْمَٰنِ إِنَاثًا ۚ أَشَهِدُواخَلْقَهُمْ سَتُكْتَبُ شَهَادَتُهُمْ وَيُسْأَلُونَ
"And they have made the angels, who are servants of the Most Merciful, females. Did they witness their creation? Their testimony will be recorded, and they will be questioned." (Qur'an 43:19)
The famous fourteenth century Hanbali jurist and theologian ibn Taymiyyah argued regarding the source of knowledge of the unseen matters:
فإن هذه الأمور الغيبية المعينة المفصلة لا يؤخذ خبرها قط إلا عن نبي
"The detailed unseen matters are not allowed to be narrated except by a prophet." (Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Jawab as-Sahih, Vol. 5, p. 386)
All that we know about the angels are:
Therefore, Muslims should stop where Allah and his Messenger stopped.
Scholars mostly agree on the unknowability of the gender of the angels.
The first century tabi'i Abu Mijlaz is exceptional for interpreting a verse of the people of al-A'raf (human whose sins and good deeds are equal as ibn Abbas narrated) as referring to the angel and so he argued they are men. He was followed by one of the contemporary Wahabi scholars ibn Baz who made a similar claim.
Umran ibn Hadir narrated:
عن أبي مجلز في قوله: (وَعَلَى الأَعْرَافِ رِجَالٌ يَعْرِفُونَ كُلاًّ بِسِيمَاهُمْ)، قال: هم رجال من الملائكة، يعرفون أهل الجنة وأهل النار
قال قلت: يقول الله"رجال"؟ قال: الملائكة ذكور
"Abu Mijlaz said (in interpreting the verse) 'and on al-A'raf, there are men who recognise all by their mark' (Qur'an 7:46), they are men of angels who recognise the people of heavens and the people of hell.
(Another narration adds) I said: 'Allah says Men'?
He said: 'Angels are males.'" (Tabari, Jami' al-Bayan, Vol. 12, p. 459)
Tabari commented on the opinions of Abu Mijlaz adopting no stance himself:
هم رجال يعرفون كُلا من أهل الجنة وأهل النار بسيماهم، ولا خبر عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يصح سنده،ولا أنه متفق على تأويلها، ولا إجماع من الأمة على أنهم ملائكة.
"They are men recognised by all their marks and there is no sound narration from the Prophet (saw) in this and they do not agree on interpreting it, as well as there is no ijma they are the angels." (Ibid, Vol. 12, p. 460)
But scholars argue the angels are not divided into genders because there is no evidence supporting this and Allah describes them as only special creatures. So, they should be subjected to our standards of gender.
Regarding the verse, Mijlaz interpreted the verse erroneously and contrary to what Tabari said, there are narrations of the companions interpreting the verse as referring to human beings. For example, ibn Abbas narrated these men are people whose sins and good deeds are equal.
Ibn Abbas (ra) said:
هم قوم استوت حسناتهم وسيئاتهم، فمنعتهم حسناتهم من النار ومنعتهم سيئاتهم من الجنة، فيقومون على سور الجنة، ثم يدخلهم الله الجنة برحمته، وهم آخر من يدخل الجنة.
"They are people whose sin and good deeds are equal; their good deeds prevented them from entering hell and their sins prevented them from entering heaven.
They would stand on the enclosure of heavens and Allah will enter them heavens by his Mercy and they will be the last people to enter heaven." (Wahidi, al-Wasit, Vol. 2, p. 371)
This narration is not directly attributed to the Prophet (ra), rather an interpretation of ibn Abbas (ra). Scholars argue the interpretation of companions in the unseen matters (not intellectual or linguistic interpretations for example) are elevated to the marfu' (as if it was narrated directly to the Prophet).
Unseen matters can't be known by reflection or knowledge except what comes from the Prophet (saw). Given the companions (ra) are trustworthy and honest in interpreting the deen, their interpretations of the unseen matters are assumed to have been heard from the Prophet (saw).
In addition, there is another sound narration of the first century tabi'i Abd ar-Rahman al-Muzani (the student of the companions Bilal ibn al-Harith) who interpreted the verse as people waiting to enter either hell of heaven (similar to ibn Abbas):
هُمْ قَومٌ قُتِلُوا فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِمَعْصِيةِ آبَائِهِمْ ْ, فَمَنَعَهُمْ قَتْلُهُمْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ عَنِ النَّارِ ومنعهم مَعْصِيَةُ آبَائِهِم أَنْ يَدْخُلُواْ الجَنَّةَ
"People were killed in the cause of Allah while they were mistreating their parents.
Their death in the cause of Allah prevented them from entering hell and their mistreatment to their parents prevented them from entering heaven." (Marudi, an-Nukat wa al-Uyun, Vol. 2, p. 226)
Using such evidences, scholars argued angels are neither male nor female. For example, the tenth century mufasir Suyuti stated:
والملائكة لا ينقسمون إلى ذكور وإناث
"Angels are not divided into males and females." (Suyuti, al-Haba'ik fi Akhbar al-Mala'ik, Vol. 1, p. 266)
Contrary to what Tabari said, scholars agreed throughout the centuries angels have no offspring nor do they procreate nor propagate. Razi narrated the agreement of scholars over this:
اتَّفَقُوا عَلَى أَنَّ الْمَلَائِكَةَ لَا يَأْكُلُونَ وَلَا يَشْرَبُونَ وَلَا يَنْكِحُونَ
"They (scholars) agreed on angels neither eat nor drink nor have sex (or marry)." (Razi, Mafatih al-Ghayb, Vol. 1, p. 85)
The angels are neither males nor females; we don't know their gender or whether they should be subjected to our earthly and human standards of gender or not.
Ibn Taymiyyah, al-Jawab as-Sahih;
Tabari, Jami' al-Bayan;
Suyuti, al-Haba'ik fi Akhbar al-Mala'ik;
Razi, Mafatih al-Ghayb;
Marudi, an-Nukat wa al-Uyun.
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