Jews and Muslims generally lived in harmony in many Muslim-populated countries, such as Morocco, Iraq and Egypt (and, at least until the mass migration of Jews to Palestine in the early 1900s, in Palestine itself) before the creation of Israel in 1948, following World War I?. Jews refer to Muslim rule in Spain in their history books as a period of renaissance for Jewish life. During the Spanish Inquisition when both Muslims and Jews in Spain were forced to convert or leave, many Jews fled to Muslim countries where they lived for centuries in security and prosperity. These Muslim countries, with rare and short-lived exceptions, never propagated the anti-Jewish sentiment that resulted in pogroms and other forms of persecution known in Europe.
It was only with the twentieth-century mass settlement of Jews in Palestine, as mentioned above and the subsequent creation of the state of Israel that this modern-day conflict began.
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