The orientalist scholar and critic of Islam, Bernard Lewis wrote in his book "Islam and the West":
"The notion of church and state as distinct institutions, each with its own laws, hierarchy and jurisdiction, is characteristically Christian, with its origins in Christian scripture and history. It is alien to Islam... From the lifetime of its founder, Islam was the state and the identity of religion and government is indelibly stamped on the memories and awareness of the faithful from their own sacred writings, history and experience.
For Muslims, Muhammed's career as a soldier and statesman was not additional to his mission as a prophet. It was an essential part of it."
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