A late-colonial tendency which saw in the onslaught of Western imperialism, a paradigm for emulation. Courtesy of Western education, intellectual elites among the subject population began distancing themselves from traditional Islam and rethinking, indeed remaking, Islam in the socio-political image of European empires.
Consider the Amir brothers in India, who opened the Qur'an only to find, behold, the very moral codes of Victorian Britain. Or consider Sayyid Khan who established a seminary at Alihar dedicated to the reinvention of religion without metaphysics.
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