in category Fiqh (Jurisprudence)

Is jummah salat obligatory (fard/wajib), emphasised (sunnah muakkadah) or recommended (mandoub)?

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Is jummah salat obligatory (fardwajib), emphasised (sunnah muakkadah) or recommended (mandoub)?

Imam Qurtubi said in his commentary on the Qur'an 2:43 the majority of the scholars said it is a Sunnah Mu'akkadah. He said some scholars argue if someone leaves a Sunnah Mu'akkadah consistently and for no valid reason, he is committing a sin. The Hanafi Madhab considers whoever neglects a Sunnah Mukadda is sinful in a different way to the other madhahib - who neglects sunnah mu'akadda will not be entitled for the intercession of Allah's Messenger (saw) on the day of Judgment.

Another group of scholars he says argue it is Fard Kifaayah and Ibn Abdul Barr agreed with this opinion. Then he says that another group of scholars say that it is compulsory: وَقَدْ اِخْتَلَفَ الْعُلَمَاء فِي شُهُود الْجَمَاعَة عَلَى قَوْلَيْنِ فَاَلَّذِي عَلَيْهِ الْجُمْهُور أَنَّ ذَلِكَ مِنْ السُّنَن الْمُؤَكَّدَة وَيَجِب عَلَى مَنْ أَدْمَنَ التَّخَلُّف عَنْهَا مِنْ غَيْر عُذْر الْعُقُوبَة وَقَدْ أَوْجَبَهَا بَعْض أَهْل الْعِلْم فَرْضًا عَلَى الْكِفَايَة قَالَ اِبْن عَبْد الْبَرّ وَهَذَا قَوْل صَحِيح لِإِجْمَاعِهِمْ عَلَى أَنَّهُ لَا يَجُوز أَنْ يُجْتَمَع عَلَى تَعْطِيل الْمَسَاجِد كُلّهَا مِنْ الْجَمَاعَات فَإِذَا قَامَتْ الْجَمَاعَة فِي الْمَسْجِد فَصَلَاة الْمُنْفَرِد فِي بَيْته جَائِزَة لِقَوْلِهِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلَام ( صَلَاة الْجَمَاعَة أَفْضَل مِنْ صَلَاة الْفَرْد بِسَبْعٍ وَعِشْرِينَ دَرَجَة ) أَخْرَجَهُ مُسْلِم مِنْ حَدِيث اِبْن عُمَر وَرُوِيَ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَة رَضِيَ اللَّه عَنْهُ أَنَّ رَسُول اللَّه صَلَّى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ قَالَ : ( صَلَاة الْجَمَاعَة أَفْضَل مِنْ صَلَاة أَحَدكُمْ وَحْده بِخَمْسَةٍ وَعِشْرِينَ جُزْءًا ) Ibn Hajar al Asqalani says something similar. He said that those who said that it is compulsory on every person are scholars like 'Ataa, Awzaai, Ahmad, Abi Thawr, Ibn Khuzayma and Dawood. However, he then states that the majority of the scholars argue whether it is a Sunnah Muakkadah or Fard Kifaayah, but not compulsory on each individual person:

هذا مما استدل به من قال : الجماعة فرض عين , وهو مذهب عطاء والأوزاعي وأحمد وأبي ثور وابن خزيمة وداود . وقال الجمهور : ليست فرض عين , واختلفوا هل هي سنة أم فرض كفاية كما قدمناه ؟

Imam Al Shawkani said:

It [Jama'a prayer] is neither a fard 'ayn nor a Fard kifaya nor a condition for the validity of one's salat." (Nayl alawtar, Volume 3, page 129)

It should be noted that even according to the opinion that salah in jama'ah is neither fardh 'ayn nor fardh kifayah, however if a Muslim community entirely abandons praying in jama'ah, then it is agreed that they are sinful and should be forced (by the Muslim authorities) until they establish it, even if that means fighting them, as Ibn Taymiyyah said. The same applies to the adhan and other essential sha'a'ir of Islam.

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