It is important not to see apostasy as choosing to believe in a secular faith or not. In most Western societies religion as a way of life had been reduced to a personal choice - and therein is the problem. Religion is much more than that and reducing it to that results in decontextualisation of concepts when reading original sources and historic civilisations that we no longer see around us.
Islam envisages a society to be constructed on faith with all aspects of the society shaped and moulded by that faith. Autonomous and self-governing faith communities (Christian, Muslim, Jewish etc) live and interact in parallel with each community living by its faith and overall security for all provided by Muslims. One is expected to select the faith community they wish to live in through choice at adulthood.
The one who subsequently rebels and tries to undermine society is seen as an apostate and the capital punishment applies.
This is little different to how most societies historically and contemporaneously treat their "apostates". Thus we see modern states have treason laws in place for such acts so little different to the Islamic ruling regarding apostates. Maybe a better choice of term could be traitors.
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