فَالْوَاجِبُ الْعَيْنِيِ : هُوَ مَا طَلَبَ الشَّارِعُ فِعْلُهُ مِنْ فَرُدٍ مِنْ كُلِ أَفْرَادِ الْمُكَلَّفِينَ ، وَلَا يُجْزِئُ قِيَامُ مُكَلَّفٌ بِهِ عَنْ آخِرِ كَالْصَّلاَةِ وَالزَّكاةِ وَالْحَجِّ وَالْوَفَاءِ بِالْعُقُودِOn the contrary, Fard Kifayah is an obligation prescribed on all those legally responsible collectively and if some performed it, the rest would be relieved from it; when these obligations are left unestablished, all (according to the capacity of each) would be considered as sinful. Examples would include jihad al-talab, establishing the Islamic state and community, ghusl of the dead Muslim, prayer and the burying of the dead, building mosques/hospitals/courts/bayt al-mal, ensuring ijtihad is done, preservation of Qur'an and the Shari'ah … etc. (Shafi'i, al-Umm, Vol. 1, p. 312, Ibn Qudamah, al-Mughni, Vol. 9, p. 162, Zarkashi, al-Bahr al-Muheet, Vol. 1, p. 242, Aal ibn Taymiyah, al-Muswadah, pp. 30-31)
"Fard Ayn: is what the legislator (Allah) orders every (mukalaf) individual to do and it is not legally sufficient another individual does it in his place, such as the prayer, zakat, hajj, fulfilment of promises (or contracts)." (Khalaf, Ilm Usul al-Fiqh, p. 104)
وَالْوَاجِبُ الْكِفَائِيِ : هُوَ مَا طَلَبَ الشَّارِعُ فِعْلُهُ مِنْ مَجْمُوعِ الْمُكَلَّفِينَ ، لَا مِنْ كُلِّ فَرَدٍ مِنْهُمْ، بِحَيْثُ إِذَا قَامَ بِهِ بَعْضُ الْمُكَلَّفِينَ فَقَدْ أَدَّى الْوَاجِبَ وَسَقَطَ الْإِثْمَ وَالْحَرِجَ عَنِ الباقين ، وَإِذَا لَمْ يَقُمْ بِهِ أَيُّ فَرَدٍ مِنْ أَفْرَادِ الْمُكَلَّفِينَ أُثِمُوا جَمِيعًا بِإهْمَالِ هَذَا الْوَاجِبَThe eighth-century Usuli scholar ibn al-Lahaam illustrated how the Kifayah differs from Ayn:
"The Kifayah obligation is what the legislator ordered a group of mukallafeen (those legally competent), not each individual, in a way that if done by some mukallafeen, the order is fulfilled and the sin or burden is relieved from the rest of them.
If no one established it from the mukallafeen, they all would be sinful because of the neglect of this obligation." (Khalaf, Ilm Usul al-Fiqh, p. 105)
الْمَقْصُودُ فِي فَرْضِ الْكِفَايَةِ إيقَاعُ الْفِعْلِ مَعَ قَطْعِ النَّظَرِ عَنِ الْفَاعِلِSo, Allah does not identify the person who is required to do it, rather the action that has to be done is specified.
"What is meant in Fard Kifayah is the performance of the act regardless of the doer (or actor)." (Ibn al-Lahaam, al-Qawa'id wa al-Fawa'id al-Usuliyah, p. 186)
الْغَزْوُ وَاجِبٌ عَلَى النَّاسِ كُلُّهُمْ، فَإِذَا غَزَا بَعْضُهُمْ أَجْزأ عَنْهُمْThe daily prayers are Fard Ayn, prescribed on each individual, but building mosques is Fard Kifayah. So, the former is an act that will benefit the individual personally (even religiously) but the latter helps in organising the community and facilitating the collective performance of the prayer. (Ibn al-Lahaam, al-Qawa'id wa al-Fawa'id al-Usuliyah, Vol. 1, p. 186)
"The invasion (Jihad al-Talab) is an obligation (wajib) upon all the people, (but) if some of them invaded, it is legally sufficient." (Ibn al-Najaar al-Hanbali, al-Kawkab al-Muneer, Vol. 1, p. 173)
الْوَاجِبُ عَلَى الْكِفَايَةِ عَلَى الْجَمِيع، وَيَسْقُطُ بِالْبَعْض، إِثْمُ الْجَمِيعِ بِالتَّرْكِ بِاِتِّفَاق.The other group of Usuliyeen (such as al-Shafi'i, Shatibi, Qarafi, Razi, Subki, Baydawi and others) argued only a group of them is addressed by the order and will be either rewarded or punished. This group of scholars argued only a group of people who are capable of establishing the hukm are entitled to undertake it collectively.
"The Kifayah obligation is prescribed upon all and is relieved when some do it. It is agreed that all of them will be sinful if they left it (unestablished)." (Ibn al-Hajib, Mukhtasar Muntaha al-Sool, p. 31, Asfahani, Sharh Mukhtasar ibn al-Hajib, Vol. 1, p. 339)
طُلِبَ الْكِفَايَةِ وَارِدٌ عَلَى الْبَعْضِ ... عَلَى مِنْ فِيه أَهْلِيَّةُ الْقِيَامِ بِذَلِكَ الْفِعْلِ الْمَطْلُوب لَا عَلَى الْجَمِيعِ عُمُومًاA similar notion was mentioned by Imam Shafi'i, the founder of the Shafi'i madhab, regarding if Muslims did not establish it:
"The Kifayah obligation is required from some … it depends on his qualification to do this required task and it is not upon all the masses." (Shatibi, al-Muwafaqat, Vol. 1, p. 278)
وَلَوْ ضِيعُوهُ مَعًا، خِفْتُ أَلَا يَخْرُجُ وَاحِدٌ مِنْهُمْ مطيقٌ فِيه مِنَ المأثَمِ .A similar notion was also adopted by the seventh-century Usuli al-Qarafi. (Qarafi, Tanqeeh al-Fusul Fi Ilm al-Usul, p. 42)
"If they neglected it altogether, I fear no one of them capable will be released from the sin." (Shafi'i, al-Risalah, p. 366)
كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الْقِتَالُThey deduced from it that Allah refers to all the Ummah by the pronoun (alaikum – upon you), but this is improbable because not all the Ummah are required to fight as the children, women, elderly, disabled and others are not required to. So, the khitab (order) does not include all of them, but only included the group capable of fighting.
"Fighting has been enjoined upon you (alaikum)." (Qur'an 2:216)
وَمَا كَانَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لِيَنفِرُوا كَافَّةً ۚ فَلَوْلَا نَفَرَ مِن كُلِّ فِرْقَةٍ مِّنْهُمْ طَائِفَةٌ لِّيَتَفَقَّهُوا فِي الدِّينِ وَلِيُنذِرُوا قَوْمَهُمْ إِذَا رَجَعُوا إِلَيْهِمْ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَحْذَرُونَSo, the order (khitab) here is only for a specific group of people who are capable and enough to establish each mission i.e. some go to learn and teach and others go and fight.
"And it is not for the believers to go forth [to battle] all at once. For there should separate from every division of them a group [remaining] to obtain understanding in the religion and warn their people when they return to them that they might be cautious." (Qur'an 9:122)
وَلْتَكُن مِّنكُمْ أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى الْخَيْرِ وَيَأْمُرُونَ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَوْنَ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَSo only a group of them is enough and entitled.
"And let there be [arising] from you a nation inviting to [all that is] good, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong, and those will be successful." (Qur'an 3:104)
لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَاTherefore, how can an individual (like someone disabled) who has nothing to do with jihad being entitled and punished for leaving something they are not capable of? There is also no actual benefit or harm that would be removed by making him obliged with action beyond his capacity. (Shatibi, Vol. 1, p. 280, Ameer Badshah, Tayseer al-Tahreer, Vol. 2, p. 213-214)
"Allah does not charge a soul except (with that which is within) its capacity." (Qur'an 2:286)
الْمُخَاطِبُ بِالْفِعْلِ لَا بِدْ أَنْ يَكُونَ قَادِرًا عَلَيهِ وَالْعَاجِزُونَ لَا يَجِبُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَقَدْ عُلْمَ أَنَّ هَذَا فَرْضٌ عَلَى الْكِفَايَةِ ... فَلِهَذَ : وَجَبَ إقامَةُ الْحُدودِ عَلَى ذِي السُّلْطَانَ وَنُوَّابَهُ
"The one who is ordained with an (obligation) of an act must be capable of doing it and those who are not able to, are not required to do it as it is Fard Kifayah … So, the hudud are legally prescribed upon the sultan or his deputy to perform." (Ibn Taymiyah, Majmu' al-Fatawa, Vol. 34, p. 175)
"Everyone is obliged to do that according to his capacity for which he would be accounted for."For example, one of the key contemporary Fard Kifayah issues of our time is the establishment of the Khilafah Rashidah (Rightly-guided Caliphate). Everyone should work according to his capacity: those who can teach it to children, those who can study how to build it, those who can write, those who can fund the process, those who can support it politically, those who can only pray and wish… etc. are all required to make the best effort in their circle of influence. None of us is beyond the obligation as long as one can do even a little and none of us would be punished for doing his best effort and failing.
وَيَجِبُ" عَيْنًا "عَلَى مَنْ ظَنَّ أَنَّ غَيْرَهُ لا يَقُومُ بِهِ" أَيْ بِفَرْضِ الْكِفَايَةِ.Nawawi also noted:
"It is an Ayn obligation upon who thinks (knows) no other one could do it but him." (Sharh al-Kawkab al-Muneer, Vol. 1, p. 375)
وَاِعْلَمْ أَنَّ تَعْلِيمَ الطّالِبِيِّينَ وَإفْتَاءَ المستفتين فَرْضُ كِفَايَةٍ، فَإِنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ مِنْ يَصْلُحُ إلّا وَاحِدًا أَوْ كَانَ هُنَاكَ جَمَاعَةٌ لَا يَحْصُلُ الْغَرَضُ إلّا بِكُلُّهُمْ تُعَيِّنَ عَلَيهُمْ.
"Know that teaching the students and giving fatwas to the questioner is Fard Kifayah when there is only one person qualified to it, or a group can't be established except by them all, it becomes a (Fard) Ayn upon them." (Nawawi, Rawdat al-Talibeen, Vol. 10, p. 225)
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