The objectives (maqasid) of the shariah are the overarching outcomes sought by the application of Allah's laws in an Islamic civilisation. They are determined inductively by reviewing the shariah rules and their anticipated outcomes and underlying wisdoms (hikmah).
Scholars have differed somewhat however they are generally summed up as 5 aims.
The Hanbali jurist Shatibi famously said:
"...the Shari'ah was put in place to preserve the five necessities, and they are: way of life (Din), self (Nafs), lineage (Nasl), wealth (Mal) and mind (Aql)." (Al- Muwafaqat Fi Usui Ash-Shari'ah" , Vol. 1, p. 38)
Also, Muhammad Ibn Muhammad Al-Hanafi Al- Halabi said:
"And the preservation of the:
1. Deen, amongst the necessities, is given precedence over other than it, when there is conflict, because it is the greatest goal. Allah said,
"And I created not the Jinns and humans except so they should serve Me" (Surat al-Dhariyat:56)"
And other than it is a goal due to it. And because its fruit is the most complete of fruits, the achievement of eternal happiness in the nearness to the Lord of the Worlds.
2. Then the preservation of the self (Nafs) is given precedence over the preservation of the lineage (Nasab), the mind, and the wealth, due to it including the deen's benefits, because they are only achieved through the acts of servitude, and their achievement is reliant upon the survival of the self.
3. Then the preservation of the lineage is given precedence, because it is for the survival of the self of the child. Because through the forbiddance of zina, no mixing of the lineage takes place, so the child is attributed to one individual, so the father does diligence in raising him and preserving the child's self. Otherwise, the child would be neglected, then his self would be lost due to his inability to preserve it.
4. Then the preservation of the mind is given precedence over the preservation of the wealth, due to the loss of the self through its loss to the point that the person joins the animals and the responsibility falls off of him with its loss.
And from there, with its loss becomes obligatory what is obligatory with the loss of the self, and it is the full blood money.
5) Then the preservation of the wealth (comes last)."
(At-Taqrir Wat-Tahbir Fi Sharh Kitab At-Tahrir, Vol. 3, p. 231)
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