1 Answer
by
(8.1k points):

Islamic researcher, graduated from Al-Azhar University, Islamic Studies in English.
6 Helpful
0 Unhelpful
In a Nutshell:
According to classical scholarship, bid'ah has two meanings: something that did not exist or was not done during the era of the Prophet (saw) endorsed by scholars like Shafi'i, Ibn Hazm, Nawawi, Qurafi and al-Izz al-Din ibn Abd al-Salam et al or something that opposes or clashes with the Qur'an or Sunnah stated by scholars like Shatibi, ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Mullah Ali al-Qari al-Hanafi et al.
In essence both are saying the same thing - anything not rooted in revelation is unacceptable.
Introduction

The narration where the Prophet (saw) stated, "Every innovation (bid'ah) is going astray (dalala), and every going astray will be in the Fire." (Muslim, al-Nisa'i) has generated considerable contemporary controversies.

This answer considers the notion of bid'ah in Islam and how this hadith contributes to its definition
.

Misconceptions

Some claim every act in deen not existing and practised during the time the Prophet (saw) is bid'ah and thus it is haram. This is an erroneous notion which no scholar advocated.

Evidences

Qur'an

1.   الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا – المائدة 5/3

"This day I have perfected for you your religion and completed My favour upon you and have approved for you Islam as a deen…" (Qur'an 5:3)
Sunnah

1.    عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ: كُلَّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلاَلَةٌ وَكُلَّ ضَلاَلَةٍ فِي النَّار – مسلم 55/7، والنسائي 23/19، وأبو داود 12/42، وابن ماجه 44/1

Jabir ibn Abdullah (ra) narrated: The Prophet (saw) said, "Every innovation is going astray, and every going astray will be in the Fire." (Muslim 7:55; al-Nisa'i 19:23, Abu Dawud 42:12, ibn Majah 1:44) 
2.   عَنۡ جَابِرِ بۡنِ عَبۡدِ اللهِ، قَالَ: كَانَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم َيَقُولُ: َمَّا بَعۡدُ، فَإِنَّ خَيۡرَ الۡحَدِيثِ كِتَابُ اللهِ، وَخَيۡرُ الۡهُدَىٰ هُدَىٰ مُحَمَّدٍ، وَشَرُّ الۡأُمُورِ مُحۡدَثَاتُهَا، وَكُلُّ بِدۡعَةٍ ضَلَالَةٌ. – مسلم 7/55

Jabir ibn Abdullah (ra) narrated: The Prophet (saw) used to say, when beginning a khutbah (sermon): " The best of speech is the Book of Allah and the best of guidance is the guidance of Muhammad. The worst of things are those which are newly-invented, and every innovation is a going astray" (Muslim 7:55)
3.   عَنْ عَائِشَةَ، قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏ مَنْ أَحْدَثَ فِي أَمْرِنَا هَذَا مَا لَيْسَ مِنْهُ فَهُوَ رَدّ‏ - البخاري 53/7، ومسلم 30/23

A'isha (ra) narrated: The Messenger of Allah (saw) said: 'Whoever innovates something in this matter of ours that is not a part of it will have it rejected.'" (Bukhari53:7; Muslim 30:23)
4.   عَنْ جَرِيرِ بْنِ عَبْد اللَّهِ أن رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه قال:‏ مَنْ سَنَّ فِي الإِسْلاَمِ سُنَّةً حَسَنَةً فَعُمِلَ بِهَا بَعْدَهُ كُتِبَ لَهُ مِثْلُ أَجْرِ مَنْ عَمِلَ بِهَا وَلاَ يَنْقُصُ مِنْ أُجُورِهِمْ شَىْءٌ وَمَنْ سَنَّ فِي الإِسْلاَمِ سُنَّةً سَيِّئَةً فَعُمِلَ بِهَا بَعْدَهُ كُتِبَ عَلَيْهِ مِثْلُ وِزْرِ مَنْ عَمِلَ بِهَا وَلاَ يَنْقُصُ مِنْ أَوْزَارِهِمْ شَىْءٌ. – مسلم 47/26، وابن ماجه1/208

Jarir ibn Abdullah (ra) narrated the Messenger of Allah (saw) said: He who introduced some good practice in Islam which was followed after him (by people) he would be assured of reward like one who followed it, without their rewards being diminished in any respect. And he who introduced some evil practice in Islam which had been followed subsequently (by others), he would be required to bear the burden like that of one who followed this (evil practice) without theirs being diminished in any respect. (Muslim47:26, Ibn Majah 1:208)
5.   عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ لِبِلاَلٍ عِنْدَ صَلاَةِ الْفَجْرِ ‏ "‏ يَا بِلاَلُ حَدِّثْنِي بِأَرْجَى عَمَلٍ عَمِلْتَهُ فِي الإِسْلاَمِ، فَإِنِّي سَمِعْتُ دَفَّ نَعْلَيْكَ بَيْنَ يَدَىَّ فِي الْجَنَّةِ ‏"‏‏.‏ قَالَ مَا عَمِلْتُ عَمَلاً أَرْجَى عِنْدِي أَنِّي لَمْ أَتَطَهَّرْ طُهُورًا فِي سَاعَةِ لَيْلٍ أَوْ نَهَارٍ إِلاَّ صَلَّيْتُ بِذَلِكَ الطُّهُورِ مَا كُتِبَ لِي أَنْ أُصَلِّي - البخاري 30/19، ومسلم 154/44‏.

Abu Hurairah (ra) narrated: At the time of the Fajr prayer the Prophet (saw) asked Bilal, "Tell me of the best deed you did after embracing Islam, for I heard your footsteps in front of me in Paradise." Bilal replied, "I did not do anything worth mentioning except that whenever I performed ablution during the day or night, I prayed after that ablution as much as was written for me." (Bukhari 19:30; Muslim 44:154)
6.  عن الْعِرْبَاضَ بْنَ سَارِيَةَقال: قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: فإِنَّهُ مَنْ يَعِشْ مِنْكُمْ فَسَيَرَى اخْتِلَافًا كَثِيرًا، فَعَلَيْكُمْ بِسُنَّتِي وَسُنَّةِ الْخُلَفَاءِ الرَّاشِدِينَ الْمَهْدِيينَ، عَضُّوا عَلَيْهَا بِالنَّوَاجِذِ، وَإِيَّاكُمْ وَمُحْدَثَاتِ الْأُمُورِ؛ فَإِنَّ كُلَّ بِدْعَةٍ ضَلَالَةٌ - أبو داود 3/4، وابن ماجه 4/5

Al-Irbad bin Sariyah (ra) narrated the Prophet (saw) said: "He who lives long enough will see many things which he will not recognise, therefore, hold on to my Sunnah and that of the rightly guided Caliphs who succeed me; bite onto it with your molars. Stay away from innovations, because every innovation is misguidance." (Abu Dawood 42:12; Ibn Majah 1:45)
7. عَنْ أَبِي حَازِمٍ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ سَهْلاً، يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏"‏ أَنَا فَرَطُكُمْ، عَلَى الْحَوْضِ مَنْ وَرَدَ شَرِبَ وَمَنْ شَرِبَ لَمْ يَظْمَأْ أَبَدًا وَلَيَرِدَنَّ عَلَىَّ أَقْوَامٌ أَعْرِفُهُمْ وَيَعْرِفُونِي ثُمَّ يُحَالُ  بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَهُمْ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو حَازِمٍ فَسَمِعَ النُّعْمَانُ بْنُ أَبِي عَيَّاشٍ وَأَنَا أُحَدِّثُهُمْ هَذَا الْحَدِيثَ فَقَالَ هَكَذَا سَمِعْتَ سَهْلاً يَقُولُ قَالَ فَقُلْتُ نَعَم. قَالَ وَأَنَا أَشْهَدُ، عَلَى أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ لَسَمِعْتُهُ يَزِيدُ فَيَقُولُ ‏"‏ إِنَّهُمْ مِنِّي ‏.‏ فَيُقَالُ إِنَّكَ لاَ تَدْرِي مَا عَمِلُوا بَعْدَكَ ‏.‏ فَأَقُولُ سُحْقًا سُحْقًا لِمَنْ بَدَّلَ بَعْدِي" - مسلم 43/31 

Sahl ibn Sa'd (ra) narrated: I heard Allah's Apostle (saw) as saying: I shall go to the Cistern before you and he who comes would drink and he who drinks would never feel thirsty, and there would come to me people whom I would know and who would know me. Then there would be intervention between me and them. Abu Hazim said that Nu'man ibn  Abu Ayyash heard it and I narrated to them this hadith, and said: Is it this that you heard Sahl saying? He said: Yes, and I bear witness to the fact that I heard it from Abu Sa'id Khudri also, but he made this addition that he (the Holy Prophet) would say: They are my followers, and it would be said to him: You do not know what they did after you and I will say to them: Woe to him who changes (his religion) after me. (Muslim 43:31)
Sahabah

1.   عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَبْدٍ الْقَارِيِّ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ خَرَجْتُ مَعَ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ فِي رَمَضَانَ إِلَى الْمَسْجِدِ فَإِذَا النَّاسُ أَوْزَاعٌ مُتَفَرِّقُونَ يُصَلِّي الرَّجُلُ لِنَفْسِهِ وَيُصَلِّي الرَّجُلُ فَيُصَلِّي بِصَلاَتِهِ الرَّهْطُ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ وَاللَّهِ إِنِّي لأَرَانِي لَوْ جَمَعْتُ هَؤُلاَءِ عَلَى قَارِئٍ وَاحِدٍ لَكَانَ أَمْثَلَ ‏.‏ فَجَمَعَهُمْ عَلَى أُبَىِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ - قَالَ - ثُمَّ خَرَجْتُ مَعَهُ لَيْلَةً أُخْرَى وَالنَّاسُ يُصَلُّونَ بِصَلاَةِ قَارِئِهِمْ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ نِعْمَتِ الْبِدْعَةُ هَذِهِ وَالَّتِي تَنَامُونَ عَنْهَا أَفْضَلُ مِنَ الَّتِي تَقُومُونَ ‏.‏ يَعْنِي آخِرَ اللَّيْلِ وَكَانَ النَّاسُ يَقُومُونَ أَوَّلَهُ ‏- الموطأ 3/6

Abd al-Rahman ibn Abd al-Qari said, "I went out with Umar ibn al-Khattab in Ramadan to the mosque and the people there were spread out in groups. Some men were praying by themselves, whilst others were praying in small groups. Umar said, 'By Allah! It would be better in my opinion if these people gathered behind one reciter.' So he gathered them behind Ubayy ibn K'ab. Then I went out with him another night and the people were praying behind their Qur'an reciter. Umar said, 'How excellent this new way is, but what you miss while you are asleep is better than what you watch in prayer.' He meant the end of the night, and people used to watch the beginning of the night in prayer." (Muwatta 6:3)
2. قال ابن مسعود رضي الله عنه: اتَّبِعُوا وَلَا تَبْتَدِعُوا، فَقَدْ كُفِيتُمْ - الدارمي 288/1

Ibn Mas'ood (ra) said: "Follow (the Sunnah) and do not innovate, because you have been sufficed." (Al-Darimi 1:288).
3. قال حذيفة بن اليمان رضي الله عنه: كلّ عبادة لم يَتَعبدْ بها أَصْحابُ رَسُولِ اللهِ- صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم- فلاَ تَتَعبَّدوا بها ؛ فإِن الأَوَّلَ لَمْ يَدع للآخِر مَقالا ؛ فاتَّقوا اللهَ يا مَعْشَر القرَّاء ، خُذوا طَريقَ مَنْ كان قَبلكُم  - ابن بطه في الإبانة

 Hudhayfah Ibn Al-Yaman (ra) said: "Do not perform any act of worship which was not practised by the companions of the Prophet (saw) because the early people did not leave anything unaddressed… so follow the way of those who were before you." (Ibn Batah, Al-Ibanah)
4. دخل رجل على ابن عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا , فَقُلْتُ : أَوْصِنِي ، فَقَالَ : " عَلَيْكَ بِالِاسْتِقَامَةِ ، اتَّبِعْ وَلَا تَبْتَدِعْ ، اتَّبِعِ الْأَثَرَ الْأَوَّلَ ، وَلَا تَبْتَدِع - الهروي في ذم الكلام وأهله 185/2

A man came to Ibn Abbas (ra) and said: "Advise me" so he replied: "Fear Allah, follow (the Sunnah) and do not innovate." (Harawi, Dhazm al-Kalam wa Ahluh, Vol. 2, p. 185)
Jurist Views

Linguistically, bid'ah refers to an invention without a past precedent. (Shatibi, Al-I'tisam, Vol. 1, p. 41)

Technically or juristically, scholars adopted two different approaches in their definitions of bid'ah.

1.   Bid'ah: something not existing or practised in the Prophet's era

This is the view of a great number of Muslim scholars such as imam Shafi'i and his followers such as Ghazali, Al-Iz ibn Abd al-Salam, Nawawi and ibn Hajar; and ibn Hazm; and some Maliki scholars such as ibn al-Arabi, Qurafi, Qadi Iyad and others. This group did not make any distinction between the linguistic definition of bid'ah and a shar'i definition.

They argued every new act in respect of deen not existing or practised in the time the Prophet (saw) is bid'ah. But they divided bid'ah into categories: blameworthy matters that oppose the Qur'an, Sunnah, sayings of the companions and Ijma (scholarly consensus), and praiseworthy matters that are good innovations without disagreement. (Ibn al-Haythami, al-Fath al-Mubin, p. 107)

Imam Shafi'i defined Bid'ah as:

الْبِدْعَةُ بِدْعَتَانِ: بِدْعَةُ مَحْمُودَةٌ وَبِدْعَةُ مَذْمُومَةٍ، فَمَا وَافَقَ السُّنَّةَ فَهُوَ مَحْمُودٌ وَمَا خَالَفَ السُّنَّةَ فَهُوَ مَذْمُومٌ.

Bid'ah is two bid'ahs: praiseworthy bid'ah and blameworthy bid'ah. Thus, whatever agrees with the Sunnah, it is praiseworthy and whatever conflicts with the Sunnah, it is blameworthy. (Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari, Vol. 4, p. 257)
Ibn Hazm defined it as follows:

الْبِدْعَةُ فِي الدِّينِ كُلُّ مَا لَمْ يَأْتِ فِي الْقُرْآنِ وَلَا عَنْ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيه وَسَلَّم ، إلّا أَنَّ مِنْهَا مَا يُؤَجِّرُ عَلَيه صَاحِبُهُ وَيُعْذِرُ بِمَا قَصْدً إِلَيه وَيَكُونُ حُسْنَا ، وَهُوَ مَا كَانَ أَصْلُهُ الْإبَاحَةِ كَمَا وَرَدًّ عَنْ عُمَرٍ :" نِعْمَتْ الْبِدْعَةُ هَذِهٍ " وَهُوَ مَا كَانَ فَعَلًّ خَيْرً جَاءَ النَّصُّ بِعُمُومٍ استحبابه وَإِنَّ لَمْ يُقَرِّرْ عَمَلُهُ فِي النُّصُوصِ ، وَمِنْهَا مَا يَكُونُ مَذْمُومًا ، وَلَا يُعْذَرُ صَاحِبُهُ وَهُوَ مَا قَامَتْ الْحُجَّةُ عَلَى فَسَادِهِ

Bid'ah in deen refers to anything not mentioned in the Qur'an nor the Sunnah of the Prophet (saw). However, some bid'ah acts are rewardable and their doers are excused according to their good intentions. This is about what it is permissible in origin as from Umar who said: "What an excellent bid'ah this is." This signifies every good deed generally implied in the text as recommended, even if its application is established in the text. The other genre, however, is blameworthy and its doer shall not be excused. This genre signifies what the clear evidence was established against its invalidity. (Tawfiq al-Ra'i, Al-Bid'ah, p. 88)
Ghazali also stated:

وَمَا يُقَالُ إِنَّه أَبُدِعَ بَعْدَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيه وَسَلَّمُ فَلَيْسَ كُلُّ مَا أَبْدَعُ منهياً ، بَلْ الْمَنْهِيَّ بِدْعَةُ تَضَادِّ سَنَةِ ثَابِتَةٍ وَتُرْفَعُ أَمْرَا مِنَ الشَّرَعِ مَعَ بَقاءِ عِلَّتِهِ ، بَلْ الْإِبْدَاعَ قَدْ يَجِبُ فِي بَعْضُ الْأَحْوالِ إِذَا تُغُيِّرْتِ الْأَسْبَابَ

As regard to what is claimed as innovated after the death of the Prophet (saw), in fact, not every innovated act is legally prohibited. However, what is prohibited is the innovation disagrees with the established Sunnah or abolishes a legal command despite the existence of its underlying cause. Innovation, on the contrary, might have been obligated in some cases when the underlying cases changed. (Ghazali, Ihya Ulum al-Deen, Vol. 2, p. 3)


Categorization of Bid'ah

This group of scholars differed in their categorisation of bid'ah. While Imam Shafi'i categorised bid'ah into bid'ah hasanah and bid'ah mazmumah, others like Iz al-Deen ibn Abd al-Salam, followed by many scholars, introduced five categorises of bid'ah: fard, mandoub, mubah, makrooh and haram (Al-Iz ibn Abd al-Salam, Qawa'id al-Kubra, p. 133; Nawawi, ​​​​Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, 6:154; Qastalani, al-Mawahib al-Laduniya, 10:496; Badr al-Din al-Ayni, Umdat al-Qari, 8:254; Naqi Ali al-Hanafi, ​​​​​Usul al-Rashad).

Forbidden innovations would be adding rakats to the prayers, disliked innovations would include over-embellishing mosques of Qur'anic mushafs, permissible innovations would include shaking hands after the dawn prayers, recommended innovations would include establishing wells, schools, bridges and roads, obligatory innovations would be developing fiqh, Arabic grammar, compiling hadiths, developing scholars and so on.

2.   Bid'ah: Something which opposes or clashes with the Sunnah

This is the view of a number of scholars such as Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali, Shatibi, and the Shafi'i scholar, Zarkashi.

Ibn Rajab said:

الْمُرَادُ بِالْبِدْعَةِ مَا أَحْدُثُ مِمَّا لَا أَصْلٌ لَهُ فِي الشَّرِيعَةِ يَدِلُّ عَلَيه ، أَمَّا مَا كَانَ لَهُ أَصْلُ يَدِلُّ عَلَيه ، فَلَيْسَ بِدْعَةٌ شَرَعًا وَإِنَّ كَانَ بِدْعَةُ لُغَةِ

Bid'ah means what is innovated without having an evidential origin in the Shari'ah. As for what is referentially originated (in the Shari'ah), is not legally categorised as bid'ah even though it is linguistically called bid'ah. (Ibn Rajab, Juami al-Ulum wa al-Hikam, Vol.1, p. 47)
Imam Shatibi also defined bid'ah:

البدعة هي طَرِيقَةٌ فِي الدِّينِ مُخْتَرَعَةٌ ، تُضَاهِي الشَّرْعِيَّةَ ، يُقْصَدْ بِالسُّلُوكِ عَلَيهَا الْمُبَالَغَةَ فِي التعبُّد لِلَّهِ سُبْحَانَه

A bid'ah is any innovated matter in deen which closely resembles the Shari'ah and is intended to be a way of worshipping Allah. (Shatibi, Al-Itisam, Vol. 1, p. 48)
Imam Shatibi further criticised the definition given by the other group and their categorisations of bid'ah. He stated:

أَنَّ هَذَا التَّقْسِيمُ أَمَرُّ مُخْتَرَعً ، لَا يَدُلُّ عَلَيه دَليلُ شَرْعِيٍّ ، بَلْ هُوَ نَفْسُه متدافع؛ لِأَنَّ مِنْ حَقِيقَةِ الْبِدْعَةِ أَنَّ لَا يَدُلُّ عَلَيهَا دَليلُ شَرْعِيٍّ؛ لَا مِنْ نُصُوصِ الشَّرَعِ، وَلَا مِنْ قَوَاعِدِهِ. إِذْ لَوْ كَانَ هُنَالِكَ مَا يَدُلُّ مِنَ الشَّرَعِ عَلَى وُجُوبٍ أَوْ نَدَبً أَوْ إبَاحَةٌ؛ لَمَّا كَانَ ثَمَّ بِدْعَةٍ، وَلَكَانَ الْعَمَلُ دَاخِلَا فِي عُمُومِ الْأَعْمَالِ الْمَأْمُورِ بِهَا أَوْ الْمُخَيَّرَ فِيهَا ، فَالْجَمْعُ بَيْنَ [ كَوَّنَ ] تِلْكَ الْأَشْيَاءُ بِدْعًا ، وَبَيْنَ كَوْنِ الْأدلةِ تَدِلُّ عَلَى وُجُوبِهَا أَوْ نَدَبَهَا أَوْ إبَاحَتُهَا جَمْعِ بَيْنٍ متنافيين.

This categorisation of bid'ah is something innovated which has no supportive legal evidence to it, moreover, it contradicts the definition of bid'ah, because any deed which has an evidence which legislates it to be obligatory, recommended or allowed is by definition not an innovation, and it would have been included in the general recommendation of good deeds. Therefore, considering a matter to be a bid'ah yet claiming the existence of an evidence to recommend it is a contradiction in terms." (Shatibi, Al-Itisam, Vol. 1, p. 48)

Analysis

The disagreement among the two groups is a disagreement in words only since both groups view every act innovated in Islam after the death of the Prophet (saw) which has no legal origin is bid'ah whereas every act that is legally proved as hasan, is valid. However, the first group calls this act a praiseworthy bid'ah, whereas the second group calls it a praiseworthy Sunnah. (Ali Mahfuz, Al-Ibda fi Madar al-Ibtida, p. 35)

As regards the hadiths numbered 1-3 cited in the evidences section, they are interpreted in one of the two above ways. Either bid'ah is restricted to every blameworthy innovation, or it refers to acts that oppose the Qur'an and Sunnah. Either way results in one of the two analyses above (Naqi Ali al-Hanafi, Usul al-Rashad)

Conclusion

In Islamic Law, according to classical scholarship, bid'ah has two meanings: something did not exist or was not done during the era of the Prophet (saw) or something that opposes or clashes with the Qur'an or Sunnah.

References
Al-Iz ibn Abd al-Salam, Qawa'id al-Kubra
Badr al-Din al-Ayni, Umdat al-Qari
Harawi, Dhazm al-Kalam wa Ahluh
Ibn Hajar Al Asqalani, Fath al-Bari
Ibn Hajar Al-Haythami, al-Fath al-Mubin
Ibn Rajab, Juami al-Ulum wa al-Hikam
Ghazali, Iḥya Ulum al-Din
Mullah Ali al-Qari al-Hanafi, Mirqat al-Mafatih
Musannaf Abd al-Razzaq
Naqi Ali al-Hanafi, Usul al-Rashad
Nawawi, ​​​​Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari
Shatibi, Al-Itisam
Tawfiq al-Ra'i, Al-Bid'ah
Qastalani, al-Mawahib al-Laduniya

User Settings


What we provide!

Vote Content

Great answers start with great insights. Content becomes intriguing when it is voted up or down - ensuring the best answers are always at the top.

Multiple Perspectives

Questions are answered by people with a deep interest in the subject. People from around the world review questions, post answers and add comments.

An authoritative community

Be part of and influence the most important global discussion that is defining our generation and generations to come

Join Now !

Update chat message

Message

Delete chat message

Are you sure you want to delete this message?

...