This is an outline of what I understand of Syria... feel free to add to it if I have missed anything or if you disagree...
- Syria was a major province of Ottoman caliphate for centuries, economically prosperous and stable, with many faiths coexisting
- ww1 changed all this when the Ottomans were defeated
- the al-sham region was to be carved up into several nation-state under a French protectorate in secret deals between Britain and France
- France finally carved it into Lebanon and Syria
- she ensured non-Muslims formed the majority in Lebanon and an alawite non-Muslim minority remained in Syria
- pro-French secular regimes and elites were supported to power in both countries through a number of policies
- alawites are regarded as non-Muslims, believing in a form of trinity and reincarnation. Historically they were seen as a Christian sect whilst they claimed to be closer to Jews when seeking independence
- the alawite sect were allowed into the military by the French in Syria as they would prevent Arab nationalists uniting against her - dominating half the military
- they were allowed to take power later as they would remain dependent on outside power given the majority of sunni? disliked them - politicing of sects was a standard policy of European colonialists.
- these elites would be seen to favour their support base and create patronage networks favouring those supporting the new status quo.
- brutal secret police and torture networks were created for those opposing, major and complex tensions grew in the country - most Muslim countries have oversized militaries and security services created by the colonisers to suppress the locals - a trend that was emulated by the new elites
- oppressive authoritarian rule increasingly led to grievances, demonstrations and outbreaks of violence, most recently following the Arab spring
- Government always responded in a heavy handed way not realising the geopolitics had now begun to change
- foreign powers got involved, taking advantage of these issues, pursuing their diverging interests resulting in armed insurrection and civil war and mass slaughter...
Shari'a permits people to defend themselves against state violence and oppression. That is quite clear.
It is also clear secular ideologies are forbidden to be adopted by Muslims.
Likewise unfair, unjust or divisive policies and terrorising segments of the population with secret police.
So the Syrian regime has bren at major fault for the best part of a century, the problems of its rule now exploding in its face.
To resolve this unholy mess the Shari'a requires major structural changes - nothing less will do:
- they should politically negotiate
- a new caliph and government should be appointed by collective consent of the Muslims
- Islam should be implemented and non-Muslims given self-governing autonomy with security with the state
- the existing regime in its entirety should step down
- all foreign powers and their agencies should be expelled from the country
- a new constitution, state institutions and laws be passed
- the country rebuilt and refugees return
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