عبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنَ عُمَرَ كَانَ يُسْأَلُ هَلْ يَصُومُ أَحَدٌ عَنْ أَحَدٍ أَوْ يُصَلِّي أَحَدٌ عَنْ أَحَدٍ، فَيَقُولُ لَا يَصُومُ أَحَدٌ عَنْ أَحَدٍ وَلَا يُصَلِّي أَحَدٌ عَنْ أَحَدٍThe stipulation of fasting has been conditioned by hadiths that permit it (quoted below).
Abdullah ibn Umar used to be asked, "can someone fast for someone else, or do the prayer for someone else?" and he would reply, "No one can fast or do the prayer for anyone else." (Book 18, Hadith 674.) an-Nasa'i narrated a similar statement by ibn Abas.
وَأَجْمَعُوا أَنَهُ لَا يُصَلِي أَحَدٌ عَنْ أَحَدٍFew scholars allowed a Fiyah (ransom) for each day/prayer, as the case of fasting such as al-Butty and as-Sarkhasi.
"There is a consensus of scholars that it is not allowed to make up the prayer of another." (Tafsir al-Qurtubi, Vol. 17, pp. 114.)
إِذَا مَاتَ وَعَلَيْهِ صَلَوَاتٍ يُطْعَمُ عَنْهُ لِكُلِ صَلَاةٍ نِصْفُ صَاعٍ مِنَ حِنْطَة.It is better to adhere to the majority view here and do the following mandub deeds and offer them their reward to the dead.
"If a person died and he had missed a prayer, his inheritors can feed (it'am) the poor for each prayer half sa' (weight scale - a standard measure that equals 3kg) of wheat." (as-Sarkhasi, al-Mabsut, Vol. 3, p. 90.)
وَأَنْ لَيْسَ لِلْإِنْسَانِ إِلَا مَا سَعَىBut this verse is conditioned to other narrations that permit certain deeds, so most scholars allowed it only in the mentioned deeds. Such as the following:
"And that man shall have nothing but what he strives for." (Surat an-Najm, 53: 39.)
يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ هَلْ بَقِيَ مِنْ بِرِّ أَبَوَىَّ شَىْءٌ أَبَرُّهُمَا بِهِ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهِمَا قَالَ: "نَعَمِ الصَّلاَةُ عَلَيْهِمَا وَالاِسْتِغْفَارُ لَهُمَا وَإِنْفَاذُ عَهْدِهِمَا مِنْ بَعْدِهِمَا وَصِلَةُ الرَّحِمِ الَّتِي لاَ تُوصَلُ إِلاَّ بِهِمَا وَإِكْرَامُ صَدِيقِهِمَا "
Messenger of Allah is there any kindness left that I can do to my parents after their death? He replied: Yes, you can invoke blessings on them, forgiveness for them, carry out their final instructions after their death, join ties of relationship which are dependent on them, and honour their friends." (Sunan Abi Dawud 5142.)
إِذَا مَاتَ الإِنْسَانُ انْقَطَعَ عَنْهُ عَمَلُهُ إِلاَّ مِنْ ثَلاَثَةٍ إِلاَّ مِنْ صَدَقَةٍ جَارِيَةٍ أَوْ عِلْمٍ يُنْتَفَعُ بِهِ أَوْ وَلَدٍ صَالِحٍ يَدْعُو لَهُ
"When a man dies, his deeds come to an end, except for three: A continuous charity, knowledge by which people derive benefit, pious son who prays for him." (Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 949.)
جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ أُمِّي مَاتَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا صَوْمُ شَهْرٍ أَفَأَقْضِيهِ عَنْهَا فَقَالَ " لَوْ كَانَ عَلَى أُمِّكَ دَيْنٌ أَكُنْتَ قَاضِيَهُ عَنْهَا " . قَالَ نَعَمْ . قَالَ " فَدَيْنُ اللَّهِ أَحَقُّ أَنْ يُقْضَى "
"A man came to the Messenger of Allah (saw) and said: Messenger of Allah, my mother has died (in a state) that she had to observe fasts of a month (of Ramadan). Should I complete (them) on her behalf? thereupon he (the Holy Prophet) said: Would you not pay the debt if your mother had died (without paying it)? He said: Yes. He (the Holy Prophet) said: The debt of Allah deserves more that it should he paid." (Sahih Muslim 1148 b. al-Bukhari.)
جَاءَتْ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَتْ إِنَّ أُمِّي نَذَرَتْ أَنْ تَحُجَّ، فَلَمْ تَحُجَّ حَتَّى مَاتَتْ أَفَأَحُجُّ عَنْهَا قَالَ " نَعَمْ. حُجِّي عَنْهَا، أَرَأَيْتِ لَوْ كَانَ عَلَى أُمِّكِ دَيْنٌ أَكُنْتِ قَاضِيَةً اقْضُوا اللَّهَ، فَاللَّهُ أَحَقُّ بِالْوَفَاءِ
A woman from the tribe of Juhaina came to the Prophet (ﷺ) and said, "My mother had vowed to perform Hajj but she died before performing it. May I perform Hajj on my mother's behalf?" The Prophet (ﷺ) replied, "Perform Hajj on her behalf. Had there been a debt on your mother, would you have paid it or not? So, pay Allah's debt as He has more right to be paid." (Sahih al-Bukhari 1852.)
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