The idea of Satan pretending to be an angel and appearing to Muhammed(saw) in the cave of Hira is ludicrous from a common sense point of view.
Nevertheless, I will outline some arguments to explain why.
Firstly, if we assume that it was Satan who appeared to Muhammed(saw) the first time at the cave, bringing revelation, then we must assume he continued the charade throughout the 23 year period of revelation otherwise the argument would not hold as the entire revelation (Quran) is from the same source.
One of the reasons it cannot be Satan is because on his first meeting Gabriel commands Muhammad(saw) to recite the following Quranic verse:
"Read in the name of your Lord who created -created man from a clot. Read: for your Lord is Most generous, who teaches by the pen, teaches man that which he knew not."
اقْرَأْ بِاسْمِ رَبِّكَ الَّذِي خَلَقَ خَلَقَ الْإِنْسَانَ مِنْ عَلَقٍ اقْرَأْ وَرَبُّكَ الْأَكْرَمُ الَّذِي عَلَّمَ بِالْقَلَمِ عَلَّمَ الْإِنْسَانَ مَا لَمْ يَعْلَمْ
Why would Satan tell Muhammed (saw) to believe in Allah - a God who created mankind - when his sole purpose is to drag mankind with him to Hell by encouraging and coaxing them to rebel against Allah and disbelieve in his existence?
In fact, the entire Quran in countless verses encourages man to come to the belief in the existence of one God which is contrary to Satan's aims.
Furthermore, revelation criticises Satan:
"I seek Allah's protection/refuge from Satan, the Accursed one."
أعوذُ بِٱللَّهِ مِنَ ٱلشَّيۡطَٰنِ ٱلرَّجِيمِ
Who would tell someone to seek refuge with Allah(swt) from themselves? And why would Satan refer to himself as the "accursed"? There are countless verses in the Quran warning mankind about Satan about how he is an avowed enemy of man. It is not rational to conclude that Satan warns man against himself.
In addition to this, it is usual for an author to claim recognition for his work. Allah claims to be the author of the Quran. Satan does not. Allah challenges man and jinn (Satan's race) to write something similar to the Qur'an:
"Say, if mankind and the jinns were together to produce the like of this Quran, they could not produce the like thereof, even if they helped one another."
قُل لَّئِنِ ٱجْتَمَعَتِ ٱلْإِنسُ وَٱلْجِنُّ عَلَىٰٓ أَن يَأْتُوا۟ بِمِثْلِ هَٰذَا ٱلْقُرْءَانِ لَا يَأْتُونَ بِمِثْلِهِۦ وَلَوْ كَانَ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ ظَهِيرًا
Satan himself does not claim he wrote the Quran nor can he produce anything like it, as the challenge clearly extends to him and his race and since he can't write something similar to it then he certainly did not reveal the whole Quran.
And why would Satan give someone else the credit of writing the Quran (which is a literary miracle - the only one of its kind) surely he would give himself the credit of writing the Quran and say he did it; he wouldn't give someone else the credit for a great work like the Quran. Why would he portray himself as the bad guy who gets condemned to hell if he was the one who revealed the Quran surely he would portray himself as the good guy or even God?
Therefore Satan did not appear pretending to be an angel; it was Jibreel (Gabriel) acting in obedience to Allah's command.
In conclusion, the Qur'an is not from satan.
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