Islam has become widely contested following the collision of the Muslim world with European colonialism, Islamic civilisations dismantled, and Islam reduced to a personal faith and religion in collective discourse.
To illustrate this Sophia Rose Arjana’s ‘Buying Buddhha, Selling Rumi: Orientalism and the Mystical Marketplace’ observes:
“Religious voices have provided some sound critiques of consumptive practices, urging followers to return to what they call tradition. However, many of these same people just push more products on the consumer in the name of religion. The halal-life-style-living in accordance with Islamic rules for behaviour, eating, praying properly, and so on - often requires consumption - of the prayer rug, the halal lamb, and the Proud To Be Muslim T-shirt.”
As we consider the effects of capitalism in our lives, we should consider how religiosity functions, how it has been secularised and are we trying to fit within a new social order rather than critiquing its logic to bring back Islam.
Western scholarship has been seeking how to conceptualize Islam to understand how to identify those who speak about Islam with authenticity, continuity, and legitimacy. Some have struggled with the project claiming there is no "Islam" (El-Zein in Beyond Ideology and Theology), others claim there is no "Islam" but "local Islams" (Gilsenan in Recognizing Islam), others have focused on ideational, sociological or political-economic approaches excluding "scriptural" dimensions of Islam from their analysis, Gellner's "Islam as a blueprint of social order" illustrates this.
There is once again a need to re-articulate what Islam is.
A common misconception is the Messenger (saw) defined Islam in his response to Jibreel's (as) question (hadith no 1 below). The hadith "Islam is built on 5 pillars" cites the same five points, albeit cast as pillars of Islam.
As definitions go, this is an extensional definition, one that lists examples contained in a term, that helps us understand Islam through citing prominent Islamic practices that are collective and institutional.
However, such a definition does not cite the common thread. That's where an "intensional" definition helps - this answer seeks to put forward such a definition.
The following evidences are commonly cited.
1. أَفَغَيْرَ دِينِ اللَّهِ يَبْغُونَ وَلَهُ أَسْلَمَ مَن فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ طَوْعًا وَكَرْهًا وَإِلَيْهِ يُرْجَعُونَ
Is it other than the deen of Allah they desire, while to Him have submitted those within the heavens and earth, willingly or by compulsion... (Qur'an 3:83)
2. بَلَىٰ مَنْ أَسْلَمَ وَجْهَهُ لِلَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ فَلَهُ أَجْرُهُ عِندَ رَبِّهِ وَلَا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
Whoever submits his face to Allah while doing good will have his reward with his Lord...(Qur'an 2:112)
3. إِنَّ الدِّينَ عِندَ اللَّهِ الْإِسْلَامُ ۗ وَمَا اخْتَلَفَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ إِلَّا مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءَهُمُ الْعِلْمُ بَغْيًا بَيْنَهُمْ
The only deen acceptable to Allah is Islam (Qur'an 3:19)
4. فَإِنْ حَاجُّوكَ فَقُلْ أَسْلَمْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّهِ وَمَنِ اتَّبَعَنِ ۗ وَقُل لِّلَّذِينَ أُوتُوا الْكِتَابَ وَالْأُمِّيِّينَ أَأَسْلَمْتُمْ ۚ فَإِنْ أَسْلَمُوا فَقَدِ اهْتَدَوا
Say, "I have submitted myself to Allah and those who follow me." And say to those given the Scripture and [to] the unlearned, "Have you submitted yourselves?" And if they submit they are rightly guided. (Qur'an 3:20)
5. إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسْلِمْ ۖ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ - وَوَصَّىٰ بِهَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بَنِيهِ وَيَعْقُوبُ يَا بَنِيَّ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَىٰ لَكُمُ الدِّينَ فَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنتُم مُّسْلِمُونَ
When his Lord said to him, "Submit", he said "I have submitted to the Lord of the worlds. And Abraham instructed his sons [to do the same] and [so did] Jacob, "O my sons, Allah has chosen for you this deen, so do not die unless you are Muslims." (Qur'an 2:130-132)
6. فَلَمَّا أَسْلَمَا وَتَلَّهُ لِلْجَبِينِ - وَنَادَيْنَاهُ أَن يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ قَدْ صَدَّقْتَ الرُّؤْيَا
And when they had both submitted and he put him down upon his forehead, We called to him, "O Abraham, You have fulfilled the vision." (Qur'an 37:104-105)
7. وَمَن يَبْتَغِ غَيْرَ الْإِسْلَامِ دِينًا فَلَن يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَهُوَ فِي الْآخِرَةِ مِنَ الْخَاسِرِينَ
Whoever desires other than Islam as deen never will it be accepted from him, and in the Hereafter will be among the losers. (Qur'an 3:85)
8. يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً
"O you who have believed, enter into Islam, all of you..." (Qur'an 2:208)
9. اَ لۡيَوۡمَ اَكۡمَلۡتُ لَـكُمۡ دِيۡنَكُمۡ وَاَ تۡمَمۡتُ عَلَيۡكُمۡ نِعۡمَتِىۡ وَرَضِيۡتُ لَـكُمُ الۡاِسۡلَامَ دِيۡنًا
"This day I have perfected your deen, and completed my favor unto you, and I have approved Islam for your deen" (Qur'an 5:5)
1. قَالَ يَا مُحَمَّدُ أَخْبِرْنِي عَنِ الإِسْلاَمِ قَالَ: "أَنْ تَشْهَدَ أَنْ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ اللَّهُ وَأَنَّ مُحَمَّدًا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَتُقِيمَ الصَّلاَةَ وَتُؤْتِيَ الزَّكَاةَ وَتَصُومَ رَمَضَانَ وَتَحُجَّ الْبَيْتَ إِنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلاً". قَالَ صَدَقْتَ...
Jibreel said, "O Muhammad, tell me about Islam." He said: "It is to bear witness there is none worthy of servitude except Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, to establish Salah, to give Zakah, to fast Ramadan and to perform Hajj if you are able." (Muslim 47:6)
2. قَالَ مَا الإِسْلاَمُ قَالَ " الإِسْلاَمُ أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ وَلاَ تُشْرِكَ بِهِ، وَتُقِيمَ الصَّلاَةَ، وَتُؤَدِّيَ الزَّكَاةَ الْمَفْرُوضَةَ، وَتَصُومَ رَمَضَانَ
He further asked, "What is Islam?" Allah's Messenger (saw) replied, "To worship Allah Alone and none else, to offer prayers perfectly to pay the zakat and to observe fasts during the month of Ramadan."
3. بني الإسلام على خمس: شهادة أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله، وإقام الصلاة، وإيتاء الزكاة، وحج البيت، وصوم رمضان". رواه البخاري و مسلم
"Islam has been built on five [pillars]: testifying there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, establishing the salah, paying the zakat, undertaking hajj and fasting Ramadan." (Bukhari and Muslim)
4. وأنا آمركم بخمس الله أمرني بهن: السمع والطاعة والجهاد والهجرة والجماعة فإنه من فارق الجماعة قيد شبر فقد خلع ربقة الإسلام من عنقه إلا أن يرجع، ومن ادعى دعوى الجاهلية فإنه من جثا جهنم، فقال رجل: يا رسول الله وإن صلى وصام؟ قال: وإن صلى وصام، فادعوا بدعوى الله الذي سماكم المسلمين المؤمنين عباد الله
"I order you with five things which Allah ordered me with: The Jama'ah (polity), hearing and obeying (the Imam), hijrah (migration) and jihad in the way of Allah. So whoever separates from the jama'ah by a handspan, throws the yoke of Islam from his neck, unless he repents. And whosoever calls with the call of jahiliyyah (the days of ignorance), then he is from the heap of Hellfire." It was said: Even if he fasts and prays? He said: "Even if he fasts and prays. So name Muslims with the names which Allah gave: Muslims (muslimoon), Believers (mouminoon), Servants (abidoon) of Allah." (Tirmidhi 2863, Tiyalasi 1161)
5. من خرج من الجماعة قيد شبر فقد خلع ربقة الإسلام من عنقه حتى يراجعه من مات و ليس عليه إمام جماعة فإن موتته موتة جاهلية
"Whoever removes himself from the Jama’at (the ummah) by a handspan then he has taken Islam from his neck until he returns..." (Hakim)
6. عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَيُوشِكُ أَنْ يَأْتِيَ عَلَى النَّاسِ زَمَانٌ لَا يَبْقَى مِنَ الْإِسْلَامِ إِلَّا اسْمُهُ، وَلَا يَبْقَى مِنَ الْقُرْآنِ إِلَّا رَسْمُهُ، مَسَاجِدُهُمْ عَامِرَةٌ وَهِيَ خَرَابٌ مِنَ الْهُدَى، عُلَمَاؤُهُمْ شَرُّ مَنْ تَحْتَ أَدِيمِ السَّمَاءِ مَنْ عِنْدَهُمْ تَخْرُجُ الْفِتْنَةُ وَفِيهِمْ تَعُودُ
Ali ibn Abi Talib (ra) reported the Messenger (saw) said, “There will come a time upon the people, when there will remain nothing of Islam except its name (ism) and nothing will remain of the Qur'an except its outward form (rasm). Their masjids will be full of people (well built) but will be empty of guidance. Their scholars will be the most evil under the heavens; from them turmoil (fitnah) will emanate and to them it will return.” (Bayhaqi no. 1763. First part of narration also reported by Bukhari in Khalq Af’al al-Ibad)
1. لا إسلام إلا بجماعة، ولا جماعة إلا بإمارة، ولا إمارة إلا بطاعة
People were building high buildings during the time of Umar (ra) who then said': 'O Arab people, don't build such high buildings. There is no Islam except with jama'ah (body politic) and no jama'ah except with imarah (leadership), and no imarah except with ta'ah (obedience). (Darimi, Narrated by Ibn Abd Al Bir Al-Qurtubi in Jami' Bayan Al 'Ilm Wa Fadhluh)
2. Abu Bakr (ra) said in his sermon when the Messenger of Allah (saw) died, and he was appointed as the successor (Khalifah) after him (saw): "Muhammad is dead, and this Deen must have people to implement it."
3. Umar ibn al-Khattab, ra, said to me, “Do you know what will demolish Islam?” I said no. Umar said, “Islam will be demolished by the faults of scholars, the arguments of hypocrites over the Book, and the judgment of misguided leaders.” (Darimi 214)
4. عَنْ طَارِقِ بْنِ شِهَابٍ قَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ رضي الله عنه إِنَّا كُنَّا أَذَلَّ قَوْمٍ فَأَعَزَّنَا اللَّهُ بِالْإِسْلَامِ فَمَهْمَا نَطْلُبُ الْعِزَّةَ بِغَيْرِ مَا أَعَزَّنَا اللَّهُ بِهِ أَذَلَّنَا اللَّهُ
Umar ibn al-Khattab (ra) said, “Verily, we were a disgraceful people and Allah honored us with Islam. If we seek honor from anything besides that with which Allah honored us, Allah will disgrace us.” (Mustadrak 214)
Islam has been defined as total submission to Allah in accordance with his commands and prohibitions, thereby emphasising the linguistic dimension. The juristic discussions on dar al-Islam (the home of Islam) accentuate its role as a deen via collective submission through the creation of ruling institutions and security in accordance with revelation. Both usages despite varying in wording are describing a similar phenomenon - total submission to all of Allah's rules and laws that cannot be achieved without a polity.
Classical Islamic scholarship generally agree the definition of the term Islam is "Servitude of Allah and his rules with utmost sincerity" albeit with varying wording.
The term "Islam" in origin refers to submission or surrender (inqiyad). This is seen in scholarly works like that of the sixth-century exegete Baghawi who defined Islam as:
والإسلام هو الدخول في السِّلم ، وهو الانقياد والطاعة
Islam means surrender, it is submission and obedience. (Ma'alim al-Tanzil, Vol. 3, p.18)
This is then extended to the surrender or submission to Allah alone, generally agreed upon by the jurists, albeit in varying wording but with the same meaning:
الإسلام هو الخضوع والانقياد بمعنى قبول الأحكام والإذعان
Islam means submission and surrender, meaning accepting the rulings and showing obedience (Taftazani, Sharh al-Aqa'id al-Nasafiyyah, p.450)
الإسلام هو الخضوع والانقياد لما أخبر به الرسول (صلى الله عليه وسلم)، وما وطأ في القلب واللسان فهو إيمان: أقول هذا مذهب الشافعي، وأما مذهب أبي حنيفة فلا فرق بينهما
Islam means submission and surrender to what has been conveyed by the Messenger (saw). With regards to what lies at the heart and tongue, that is Imaan. This is the view of the Shafi'i madhab, whilst Abu Hanifah's madhab did not differentiate between them. (Jurjani, al-Ta'rifat, p.20)
هو الاستسلام لله لا لغيره، بأن تكون العبادة والطاعة له والذل، وهو حقيقة لا إله إلا الله
It is the surrender to Allah alone by dedicating servitude, obedience and submission for His sake. This the true meaning of "laa ilaha illa Allah". (Ibn Taymiyyah, Majmu al-Fatawa, Vol. 5, p.239)
There are then peripheral discussions regarding the relationship of imaan to Islam, whether it was an inherent part of it or not, as seen in Abu Hanifah's work:
الإسلام هو: التسليم والانقياد لأوامر الله تعالى فمن طريق اللغة فرق بين الإسلام والإيمان ولكن لا يكون إيمان بلا اسلام ولا يوجد إسلام بلا إيمان وهما كالظهر مع البطن والدين اسم واقع على الإيمان والإسلام والشرائع كلها
Islam is to surrender and to submit to the commands of Allah Most High. Hence, there is a linguistic difference between Iman and Islam. However, Iman (faith) does not exist without Islam nor Islam without Iman: they are as the back with the stomach. Deen is a noun that encompasses Iman, Islam and all of the Sharia. (Al-Fiqh al-Akbar, p. 57)
While these definitions are no doubt true and comprehensive in nature, they do not describe how such a separation is made possible, enacted, and reenacted. They thus allow the smuggling of values from other ideologies such as liberalism and individualism, whilst marginalising sociopolitical community, norms, culture, and sensibilities inherent in such definitions.
Islam as a deen incorporates the linguistic definition of Islam by also demanding a specific type of submission (inqiyad), one that is collective in nature, ie the submission by a nation (qawm) through institutionalising and embodying revelation. The territorial notion of dar al-Islam (abode/home of Islam) articulated by jurists over the centuries illustrates this meaning quite clearly.
The Hanafi jurist al-Kasani for instance stated:
لا خلاف بين أصحابنا في أن دار الكفر تصير دار إسلام بظهور أحكام الإسلام فيها واختلفوا في دار الإسلام، إنها بماذا تصير دار الكفر؟
"There is no difference between our companions (the Hanafis) that Dar al-Kufr becomes Dar al-Islam due to the appearance (zuhur) of the rulings (ahkam) of Islam therein ... And when the laws of kufr appeared in the land it became the land of kufr thus this is the appropriate term... There is no disagreement among the ahnaaf Dar al-Kufr becomes Dar al-Islam when the rules of Islam becomes dominant. Our brothers only dispute on how Dar al-Islam transfers to become Dar al-Kufr..." (Badai al-Sanaai, Vol. 7, p.131)
The Shafi'i jurist Sulayman bin Mohammed al-Bujayrimi states:
هي كلّ أرض تظهر فيها أحكام الإسلام - ويراد بظهور أحكام الإسلام: كلّ حكم من أحكامه، أو يسكنها المسلمون وإن كان معهم فيها أهل ذمّة، أو فتحها المسلمون، وأقرّوها بيد الكفّار، أو كانوا يسكنونها، ثمّ أجلاهم الكفّار
"Dar al-Islam is the entire land where the Islamic laws appear and it is intended by the phrase "appearance of the Islamic laws" every law from its laws, or Muslims live there even if there were with them ahl al-dhimma (those protected by Muslim rulers), or it was opened up by Muslims, or it was given to govern by the hand of non-Muslims or they were living there and were expelled by the kuffar from it." (Nihaya al-Muhtaj)
The Hanbali jurist Qadi Abu Ya'la said:
كلُّ دار كانت الغلبة فيها لأحكام الكفر دون أحكام الإسلام فهي دار الكفر
"Any country where the law is kufr (disbelief) instead of Islam is Dar al-Kufr." (al-Mu'atamad fil Usul al-Deen, p.276)
The Hanbali jurist Ibn Qayyim noted:
قال الجمهور: دار الإسلام هي التي نزلها المسلمون وجرت عليها أحكام الإسلام ومالم تجر عليه أحكام الإسلام لم يكن دار إسلام وإن لاصقها فهذه الطائف قريبة إلى مكة جدًا ولم تصر دار إسلام بفتح مكة
"The jumhur of the ullama say Dar al-Islam is where the Muslims go and reside and the Islamic rules are dominant. If however, Islamic rules do not become dominant it is not Dar al-Islam even if it is in close proximity to the state. Taa'if was so close to Makkah (at the time when it was Dar al-Islam) but it did not become part of Dar al-Islam until it was conquered." (Kitab Ahkam ahl al-Dhimmah, Vol. 1, p.366)
The Shafi'i scholar al-Rafi'i argued:
دار الإسلام ثلاثة أقسام: قسم يسكنه المسلمون، وقسم فتحوه وأقروا أهله عليه بجزية ملكوه أو لا، وقسم كانوا يسكنونه، ثم غلب عليه الكفار قال الرافعي وعدهم القسم الثاني يبين أنه يكفي في كونها دار إسلام كونها تحت استيلاء الإمام وإن لم يكن فيها مسلم قال: وأما عدهم الثالث فقد يوجد في كلامهم ما يشعر بأن الاستيلاء القديم يكفي لاستمرار الحكم
"Dar al-Islam comprises three kinds: the first kind where the Muslims live, the second kind where the land was conquered and given to its people on payment of the jizya tribune and the third kind where Muslims used to live before it was conquered by non-Muslims. The second kind explains that it is sufficient for it to be Dar al-Islam based on it being under the conquest of the Imam even if there were no Muslims in it. Furthermore, it is found in the third kind it is felt the historic conquest of Islam is sufficient for the continuation of the rule..." (Ibn Hajar al-Haytami, Tuhfat al-Muhtaj, Vol. 9, p.269)
The verbal form of Islam, aslama, has a pre-Islamic history. In jahiliyyah the word generally meant "giving over", especially something particularly precious, difficult or painful to abandon, to someone demanding it. This may be one's own self, (in which case it means total submission, self-surrendering); or it may be somebody else, a close friend or tribesmen (in which case it would mean betrayal).
A review of the uses of the term Islam in the sources suggests a multifaceted word that includes a wide range of meanings and senses as it may represent the purpose of our existence, Allah's eternal message to mankind to serve Him alone, revelation (i.e., Qur'an and Sunnah) or it may specifically refer to the deen sent by Allah to Muhammad (saw).
The Qur'an uses the term Islam and Muslim in two broad senses - universally and specifically:
The core meaning and use of the term revolves around it universally referring to whatever submits to Allah through time, or more specifically, the final deen revealed to the Messenger (saw), instantiated and brought to life in Medina, the latter expressed by Roy Jenkin's description:
"In the development of civilisations, intellectual disciplines and schools of thought, a general pattern can be perceived as a progress from a particular worldview to a more distinct intellectual school of thought; only at that point to achieve a new mode of social organisation.
That is to say, a Weltanschauung is required that culminates in institutions which capture the spirit and message of the original philosophy in some concrete and workable form.
The Qur’an, it could be argued, may contain this Weltanschauung in its ideality. However, to bring this seed into a full-grown reality is another matter entirely. Muhammad’s ‘mission’, therefore, might be seen in this light: he is ‘commissioned’ to ‘bring forth’ the message of the Qur’an and to give it concrete reality.
It is the transference of the perfect, metaphysical reality that is the Qur’an onto an imperfect world as best as possible. In a Platonic sense it is rather like the Demiurge moulding the world using the Perfect Forms as His archetype. The difference, however, is that—for Muslims—that-which-is-formed, in the creation of the state of Medina, is in itself an archetype." (Nietzsche and Islam, 2007)
The contemporary view that Islam the deen is a religious belief, a state of mind and not activity in the world, is seen as a modern Christian privatised one - not found in the Islamic tradition or even the medieval Christian one.
The contemporary Muslim anthropologist Talal Asad provides a valuable contribution, rejecting the labelling of Islam or even pre-modern Christianity as a "religion", a neatly separable aspect of social life being a modern Western construct, that distorts more than it informs. Instead, he defines Islam as a "discursive tradition" which emphasises not just religious dogma and worship but the social, historical, political and economic institutions in which the believer lives out his belief:
"... a historically evolving set of discourses, embodied in the practices and institutions of Islamic societies and hence deeply imbricated in the material life of those inhabiting them."
Whilst the linguistic scholar Toshihiku Izutsu poignantly observes:
"...when the pre-Islamic Arabs used the expression din al-nasara ("the religion of the Christians"), for example, they presumably meant thereby 'religion' as something reified, an objectively established thing, i.e. a whole system consisting of a certain number of creeds and ritual practices that are shared by a community.
The Qur'an uses the word obviously in the reified and non-reified senses. The best and the simplest example of non-reified type is supplied by the expression "making the din sincere", where the word din cannot but mean personal faith in God, whether it be just momentary or permanent. As an example of the reified use, we may cite 3:66 , where the Jews are depicted saying among themselves:
Do not trust except those who follow your religion.
Ali 'Imran, 3:66 
In the verse already quoted above (verse 5 ) which runs,
"This day I have perfected your religion _ . . and I have approved Islam for your religion", din seems to mean almost an objective, reified 'religion'.
If we go still further in this direction i.e. the direction of reification, than the concept changes into millah, which is religion as an objective 'thing' in the full sense of the word, a formal system of creed and rituals which constitutes the principle of unity for a particular religious community and works as the basis of its social life. Unlike the word din which still retains the original connotation of personal existential, we might say---faith and belief however far we may go in the direction of reification, millah connotes something rigid, objective, formal and it reminds us always of the existence of a society based one common religion...
Din originates from a purely personal 'obedience', as we have seen. It goes on being reified; in the last stages of this development approaching more and more the concept of millah, din becomes almost synonymous with the latter. (God and Man in the Quran, pp. 249-249-250)
All of this suggests we see Islam initially in Medina, then during the Khulafah Rashida, the Umayyads, Abbasids and finally the Ottomans. A collective way of life lived by a community in full submission.
This is understood by Maulana Abul Kalam Azad's book in 1920 called 'The Issue of Khilafat', where he stated:
'Without the Khilafah the existence of Islam is not possible, the Muslims of India with all their effort and power need to work for this.'
Islam linguistically refers to submission, universally "submission to Allah's will/commands".
As the final deen, it refers to the collective instantiation or implementation of revelation by a polity, thereby allowing the nation to collectively submit to the will of Allah.
Abul Kalam Azad, The Issue of Khilafat
Abu Hanifah, Al-Fiqh al-Akbar
Abdul Hamid el-Zein, Beyond Ideology and Theology
Baghawi, Ma'lim al-Tanzil
Bujayrami, Nihaya al-Muhtaj
Dr Salim, Ahkam al-Ahwal al-Shaksiyyah lil-Muslimeen fi al-Gharb
Ibn Manzur, Lisan al-Arab
Ibn Qayyim, Kitab Ahkam ahl al-Dhimmah
Ibn Rajab, Jami al-Ulum wa al-Hikam
Ibn Taymiyyah, Majmu al-Fatawa
Kasani, Badai al-Sanaai
Shahab Ahmed, What is Islam?
Talal Asad, The Idea of an Anthropology of Islam
Taftazani, Sharh al-Aqa'id al-Nasafiyyah
Toshihiko Izutsu, God and Man in the Quran
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