الايمان بعذاب القبر وفتنته واجب، ... وهذا مذهب أهل السنة ... وأنكرت الملاحدة ومن تمذهب بمذهب الفلاسفة عذاب القبر وأنه ليس له حقيقةIn this article, I will elaborate on this concept and present the authentic traditional proofs for it.
"The belief in punishment of the grave and its trial is mandatory (wajib) … this is the belief of Sunni Madhab … but some heretics and those who followed them from amongst philosophers denied punishmentof the grave and said it is not true." (at-Tadhkirah, pp. 137-139)
النَّارُ يُعْرَضُونَ عَلَيْهَا غُدُوًّا وَعَشِيًّا ۖ وَيَوْمَ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ أَدْخِلُوا آلَ فِرْعَوْنَ أَشَدَّ الْعَذَابِThe above verse states that before the Day of Judgement, people of Pharaoh were being punished and exposed to Hell day and night, but when the Day comes they will be sent to the severest punishment. Such a period of punishment is to be between the death and the resurrection, i.e., the grave.
"they are exposed to the Fire morning and evening. And the Day the Hour comes (it will be said), 'Make the people of Pharaoh enter the severest punishment.'" (Qur'an 40:46)
وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذِ الظَّالِمُونَ فِي غَمَرَاتِ الْمَوْتِ وَالْمَلآئِكَةُ بَاسِطُواْ أَيْدِيهِمْ أَخْرِجُواْ أَنفُسَكُمُ الْيَوْمَ تُجْزَوْنَ عَذَابَ الْهُونِ بِمَا كُنتُمْ تَقُولُونَ عَلَى اللّهِ غَيْرَ الْحَقِّ وَكُنتُمْ عَنْ آيَاتِهِ تَسْتَكْبِرُونَThe verse states Angels tell wrongdoers after taking their souls "Today you will be awarded the punishment." Thus what does come in the day of death except for the grave?
"And if you could see when the wrongdoers are in the overwhelming pangs of death while the angels extend their hands, (saying), 'Discharge your souls! Today you will be awarded the punishment of (extreme) humiliation for what you used to say against Allah other than the truth and (that) you were, toward His verses, being arrogant." (Qur'an 6:93)
وَلَوْ تَرَى إِذْ يَتَوَفَّى الَّذِينَ كَفَرُواْ الْمَلآئِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَارَهُمْ وَذُوقُواْ عَذَابَ الْحَرِيقِ ... كَدَأْبِ آلِ فِرْعَوْنَ ۙ وَالَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْAllah also says in a similar verse:
"And if you could but see when the angels take the souls of those who disbelieved... They are striking their faces and their backs and (saying), 'Taste the punishment of the Burning Fire.' … (Theirs is) like the custom of the people of Pharaoh and of those before them." (Qur'an 8:50-52)
فَكَيْفَ إِذَا تَوَفَّتْهُمْ الْمَلَائِكَةُ يَضْرِبُونَ وُجُوهَهُمْ وَأَدْبَارَهُمْAfter (إذ) the death of the disbelievers, the angels of punishment start striking their faces and their backs as they did to the people of Pharaoh, in the verse above. The proposition (إذ) means immediately after something and what comes immediately after the death except the grave.
"Then how (will it be) when the angels take them in death, striking their faces and their backs?" (Qur'an 47:27)
حَتَّى إِذَا جَاءَ أَحَدَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ قَالَ رَبِّ ارْجِعُونِ، لَعَلِّي أَعْمَلُ صَالِحًا فِيمَا تَرَكْتُ كَلَّا إِنَّهَا كَلِمَةٌ هُوَ قَائِلُهَا وَمِنْ وَرَائِهِمْ بَرْزَخٌ إِلَى يَوْمِ يُبْعَثُونَThe verse states about life after death that is followed by the resurrection. During this period, the disbelievers are asking to return back to live a righteous life, it does not make sense if they complain and suffer needlessly. They must have seen their wrong deeds and the punishment they face.
"(For such is the state of the disbelievers), until, when death comes to one of them, he says, 'My Lord, send me back that I might do righteousness in that which I left behind.' No! It is only a word he is saying and behind them is a barrier until the Day they are resurrected." (Qur'an 23:99-100)
مِمَّنْ حَوْلَكُم مِّنَ الأَعْرَابِ مُنَافِقُونَ وَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ مَرَدُواْ عَلَى النِّفَاقِ لاَ تَعْلَمُهُمْ نَحْنُ نَعْلَمُهُمْ سَنُعَذِّبُهُم مَّرَّتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يُرَدُّونَ إِلَى عَذَابٍ عَظِيمٍThere are two kinds of punishments in this world mentioned in the verses, commentators attribute one of them to the physical and psychological suffering as Allah says "And whoever turns away from My remembrance - indeed, he will have a depressed life" (Qur'an 20:124) and the second worldly punishment is the punishment in the grave.
"And among those around you of the Bedouins are hypocrites, and (also) from the people of Madinah. They have become accustomed to hypocrisy. You, (O Muhammad), do not know them, (but) We know them. We will punish them twice (in this world); then they will be returned to a great punishment." (Qur'an 9: 101)
وَلاَ تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ قُتِلُواْ فِي سَبِيلِ اللّهِ أَمْوَاتاً بَلْ أَحْيَاء عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ، فَرِحِينَ بِمَا آتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ وَيَسْتَبْشِرُونَ بِالَّذِينَ لَمْ يَلْحَقُوا بِهِم مِّنْ خَلْفِهِمْ أَلَّا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ، يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ بِنِعْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَفَضْلٍ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُضِيعُ أَجْرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ.The verse above states concerning the martyrs who will be living a happy life after death waiting for those martyrs who have not yet been killed to join them. This period must be in this world as the other martyrs have not yet been martyred. If this proves the happiness of some and their life before the resurrection of their bodies, their status goes to the other wrong does as the reward and punishment are intertwined.
"And never think of those who have been killed in the cause of Allah as dead. Rather, they are alive with their Lord, receiving provision, rejoicing in what Allah has bestowed upon them of His bounty, and they receive good tidings about those [to be martyred] after them who have not yet joined them that there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve." (Qur'an 3: 169-171)
قِيلَ ادْخُلِ الْجَنَّةَ ۖ قَالَ يَا لَيْتَ قَوْمِي يَعْلَمُون، بِمَا غَفَرَ لِي رَبِّي وَجَعَلَنِي مِنَ الْمُكْرَمِينَSuch an event certainly happened after his death in this life and before the resurrection and so it proves the bliss after the death.
"It was said (to him), "Enter Paradise." He said, "I wish my people could know how my Lord has forgiven me and placed me among the honoured." (Qur'an 36:26-27)
يثَبِّتُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِالْقَوْلِ الثَّابِتِ فِي الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَفِي الْآخِرَةِ ۖ وَيُضِلُّ اللَّهُ الظَّالِمِينَ ۚ وَيَفْعَلُ اللَّهُ مَا يَشَاءُMost of the commentators as well as some narrations of the companions confirm that "Allah keeps firm those who believe, with the firm word, in worldly life" when are asked by the two angels (su'al al-Malakian).
"Allah keeps firm those who believe, with the firm word, in worldly life and in the Hereafter. And Allah sends astray the wrongdoers. And Allah does what He wills." (Qur'an 14: 27)
إنَّ أَحَدَكُمْ إِذَا مَاتَ عُرِضَ عَلَيْهِ مَقْعَدُهُ بِالْغَدَاةِ وَالْعَشِيِّ إِنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ فَمِنْ أَهْلِ الْجَنَّةِ وَإِنْ كَانَ مِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ فَمِنْ أَهْلِ النَّارِ يُقَالُ هَذَا مَقْعَدُكَ حَتَّى يَبْعَثَكَ اللَّهُ إِلَيْهِ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِAbu Bakrah (ra) narrated:
"When anyone of you dies, he is shown his seat (in the Hereafter) morning and evening; if he is amongst the inmates of Paradise (he is shown the seat) from amongst the inmates of Paradise and if he is one from amongst the denizens of Hell (he is shown the seat) from amongst the denizens of Hell, and it would be said to him: That is your seat until Allah raises you on the Day of Resurrection (and sends you to your proper seat)." (the nine books of hadith)
مرَّ النَّبِيُّ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ بِقَبْرَيْنِ فَقَالَ " إِنَّهُمَا لَيُعَذَّبَانِ وَمَا يُعَذَّبَانِ فِي كَبِيرٍ أَمَّا أَحَدُهُمَا فَيُعَذَّبُ فِي الْبَوْلِ وَأَمَّا الآخَرُ فَيُعَذَّبُ فِي الْغِيبَةِThe Prophet (saw) said:
"The Messenger of Allah (saw) passed by two graves, and he said: 'They are being punished but they are not being punished for anything major. One of them is being punished because of urine, and the other is being punished because of backbiting.'" (the six books of hadith)
عَذَابُ الْقَبْرِ حَقٌّ
"the punishment of the grave is a fact." (Sahih al-Bukhari 1372, Sunan an-Nasa'i 1308)
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