فِتْنَةُ الْقَبْرِ وَعَذَابُهُ وَالْمَسْأَلَةُ إِنَّمَا هِي لِلرُّوحِ فَقَطْ بَعْدَ فِرَاقِهِ لِلْجَسَدِ .Ibn Hazm evidence this claim as following (Al-Fasl fi al-Milal wa an-Nihal, Vol. 4, pp. 117-120):
"The fitnah (trial), punishment and questioning are for the soul only after it leaves the body." (Al-Fasl fi al-Milal wa an-Nihal, Vol., pp. 117)
قَالُوا رَبَّنَا أَمَتَّنَا اثْنَتَيْنِ وَأَحْيَيْتَنَا اثْنَتَيْنِ فَاعْتَرَفْنَا بِذُنُوبِنَا فَهَلْ إِلَىٰ خُرُوجٍ مِّن سَبِيلٍIbn Hazm argued the two lives are birth in this world and resurrection on the Day of Judgement, whilst the two deaths are the one happens before birth (where humans were in nihility) and one happens after worldly life. Thus if there is a life for bodies in the grave, the verse would be 'You made us lifeless three times and gave us life three times.'
"They will say, 'Our Lord, You made us lifeless twice and gave us life twice, and we have confessed our sins. So is there any exit?'" (Qur'an 40:11)
اللَّهُ يَتَوَفَّى الْأَنفُسَ حِينَ مَوْتِهَا وَالَّتِي لَمْ تَمُتْ فِي مَنَامِهَا فَيُمْسِكُ الَّتِي قَضَى عَلَيْهَا الْمَوْتَ وَيُرْسِلُ الْأُخْرَى إِلَى أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّىIbn Hazm states the "specified term" (أجل مسمى) is the Day of Resurrection. Therefore, Allah only re-issues life to bodies only at the resurrection.
"Allah takes the souls at the time of their death, and those that do not die (He takes) during their sleep. Then He keeps those for which He has decreed death and releases the others for a specified term." (Qur'an 39:42)
وَمَا أَنْتَ بمُسْمِعِ مَنْ فِي الْقُبُورِThe verse suggests lifelessness to the inhabitants of the grave.
"you cannot make those in the graves hear." (Qur'an 35:22)
مَا أَنْتُمْ بِأَسْمَعَ لِمَا أَقُولُ مِنْهُمْ وَلَكِنَّهُمْ لاَ يَسْتَطِيعُونَ أَنْ يُجِيبُواIbn Hazm claims the Prophet confirmed their understanding of rotting corpses however he (saw) clarified their souls hear better than the living people do.
"You do not hear what I say any better than they do, but they cannot answer." (Sunan an-Nasa'i 2075)
إِنَّمَا نَسَمَةُ الْمُؤْمِنِ طَائِرٌ يَعْلُقُ فِي شَجَرِ الْجَنَّةِ حَتَّى يَرْجِعَ إِلَى جَسَدِهِ يَوْمَ يُبْعَثُRegarding the companions, Ibn Umar (ra) saw the body of Ibn al-Zubayr and told his mother Asmaa (ra), the daughter of Abu Bakr, who was sitting beside his body:
"The believer's soul is a bird that eats from the trees of Paradise until it will be returned to his body on the Day when he is resurrected." (Ibn Majah 4271, Muatta Malik Hadith 572, Sunan an-Nasa'i 2073)
هَذِهِ الجُثَثُ لَيْسَتْ بِشَيْءٍ وَأَنَّ الْأَرْوَاحَ عِنْدَ اللهِIt was also narrated Ibn Mas'ud (ra) was asked about the meaning of the above verse "You (Allah) made us lifeless twice and gave us life twice," he replied referring to the verse:
"These corpses are nothing and the souls are with Allah." (Ibn Abi Shaybah, 4716)
وَكُنتُمْ أَمْوَاتاً فَأَحْيَاكُمْ ثُمَّ يُمِيتُكُمْ ثُمَّ يُحْيِيكُمْ ثُمَّ إِلَيْهِ تُرْجَعُونَSo the three companions (ra) said nothing concerning the life in the grave and Ibn Umar and Asmaa (ra) criticized it.
"you were lifeless and He brought you to life; then He will cause you to die, then He will bring you [back] to life, and then to Him you will be returned." (Qur'an 2:28)
فَعَلَى هَذَا أَنَّ مَوْضِعَ كُلَّ رُوحٍ يُسَمَّى قَبْراً فَتُعَذَّبُ الْأَرْوَاحُ حِينَئِذٍ وَلَا تُسْأَلُ حَيْثُ كَانَتْ.
"In conclusion, the position of each soul is called a qabr (grave). So the souls are tormented there and do not ask where the souls are." (Al-Fasl fi al-Milal wa an-Nihal, Vol., p. 120)
أوْ كَالَّذِي مَرَّ عَلَى قَرْيَةٍ وَهِيَ خَاوِيَةٌ عَلَى عُرُوشِهَا قَالَ أَنَّىَ يُحْيِـي هَـَذِهِ اللّهُ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهَا فَأَمَاتَهُ اللّهُ مِئَةَ عَامٍ ثُمَّ بَعَثَهFor the verse that states two lives and two deaths after which Ibn Hazm said if there is life in the grave, it would be three lives and three deaths. Ibn Rajab al-Hanbali (d. 795 A.H.) said:
"Or (consider such an example) as the one who passed by a township which had fallen into ruin. He said, "How will Allah bring this to life after its death?" So Allah caused him to die for a hundred years; then He revived him." (Qur'an 2:259)
وَهَذَا ضَعِيفٌ جِدًّا ، فَإِنَّ حَيَاةَ الْبَرْزَخِ لَيْسَتْ حَيَاةٌ تَامَّةٌ مُسْتَقِلَّةٌ كَحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَكَالْْحَيَاةِ الْآخِرَةِ بَعْدَ الْبَعْثِ ، وَإِنَّمَا فِيهَا نَوْعُ اِتِّصَالِ الرُّوحِ فِي الْبَدَنِ بِحَيْثُ يَحْصُلُ بِذَلِكً شُعُورُ الْبَدَنِ وَإِحْسَاسٌ بِالنَّعِيمِ وَالْعِذَابِ وَغَيْرِهِمَا ،... وَإِنَّمَا هُوَ شَبِيهٌ بِاِنْفِصالِ رُوحِ النَّائِمِ عَنْهُ ، وَرُجُوعُهُ ا إِلَيهِ ، فَإِنَّ ذَلِكَ يُسَمَّى مَوْتًا وَحَيَاةً .So the life in the grave is contingent and is unlike life after resurrection and life before death. Therefore, they don't find a problem with the above so-called contradicting verses -rather they are two different things.
"This notion is very weak because the life between death and resurrection (al-Barzakh) is not a complete and independent life similar to the worldly life nor the life after the resurrection. It rather enjoys a kind of connection between the soul and the body for the body to feel the punishment and bliss. It is like the disconnection between the soul and body during sleeping and its return back again which is called life and death (in other hadiths)." (Ibn Rajab, Tafseer al-Quran, Vol. 2, p. 96)
إِنَّكَ لَا تُسْمِعُ الْمَوْتَى وَلَا تُسْمِعُ الصُّمَّ الدُّعَاء إِذَا وَلَّوْا مُدْبِرِينَThis verse rebukes those who carry a dead heart and don't listen to the message, so the literal meaning is not intended. (Ibn al-Qayim, ar-Ruh, pp. 60-65)
"Indeed, you will not make the dead hear, nor will you make the deaf hear the call when they have turned their backs retreating." (Qur'an 27:80)
فيَقُولُ الرَّبُّ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ : رُدُّو عَبْدِي إِلَى مَضْجَعِهِ فَإِنَِّي وَعَدّْتُهُمْ أَنَِّي مِنْهَا خَلَقْتُهُمْ وَفِيهَا أُعِيدُهُمْ وَمِنْهَا أُخْرِجُهُمْ تَارَةً أُخْرَى ... فَيَأْتِيهِ مَلَكَانٍ ... فَيُجْلِسَانِّهِ ثُمَّ يُقَالُ لَهُ مَنْ رَبُّكَ ؟Al-Hafidh Abu Na'eem said:
"Allah says, 'return my slave to his bed because I promised them that I created them from it (the earth), into it I will return them and out of it I will return them back.' Then two angels come to him … they will make him sit, then they will ask him: Who is your God?" (Tabari, Tahdhib al-Athar, Vol, 1, p. 174)
هَذَا الْحَديثُ مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَى عَدَالَةِ نَاقِلِيهِ وَرُوَاتِهِ عَلَى شَرْطَيْ الْبُخَارِيِّ وَمُسْلِمْThe hadith refers to the return of the soul to earth and the sitting of the body for questioning. In addition, there are many evidences supporting both soul and body receive punishment or bliss. It is elaborated in this answer, here.
"Scholars agree the narrators of this hadiths are trustworthy. (They even meet the criteria of Bukhari and Muslim)." (Ibn al-Qaym, p. 70)
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