Islam confirms men and women have the same honoured status with God all be it different roles, rights and responsibilities given their differing biological, physiological and psychological makeup.
These have nothing to do with differing intelligence levels as there is no significant difference between the sexes in relation to intelligence.
When it comes to legal testimonies, evidence from either sex is weighed by a judge based on its strength and credibility.
Qur'anic verses speak of two women being required testimony vs one man address weight of evidence in legal proceedings; women are usually not involved in commercial affairs in Islamic polities so their witness evidence is less credible.
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا تَدَايَنتُم بِدَيْنٍ إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُّسَمًّى فَاكْتُبُوهُ ۚ ... وَاسْتَشْهِدُوا شَهِيدَيْنِ مِن رِّجَالِكُمْ ۖ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُونَا رَجُلَيْنِ فَرَجُلٌ وَامْرَأَتَانِ مِمَّن تَرْضَوْنَ مِنَ الشُّهَدَاءِ أَن تَضِلَّ إِحْدَاهُمَا فَتُذَكِّرَ إِحْدَاهُمَا الْأُخْرَىٰ.
"O you who believe, when you contract a debt for a specified term, write it down. … And bring to witness two witnesses from among your men. And if there are not two men [available], then a man and two women from those whom you accept as witnesses - so that if one of the women errs, then the other can remind her. …" (Qur'an 2: 282)
It is in this context the hadith of deficiency in understanding is understood as touched upon by the hadith the opening question refers to:
حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ أَبِي مَرْيَمَ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ جَعْفَرٍ، قَالَ أَخْبَرَنِي زَيْدٌ ـ هُوَ ابْنُ أَسْلَمَ ـ عَنْ عِيَاضِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيِّ، قَالَ خَرَجَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فِي أَضْحًى ـ أَوْ فِطْرٍ ـ إِلَى الْمُصَلَّى، فَمَرَّ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ فَقَالَ " يَا مَعْشَرَ النِّسَاءِ تَصَدَّقْنَ، فَإِنِّي أُرِيتُكُنَّ أَكْثَرَ أَهْلِ النَّارِ ". فَقُلْنَ وَبِمَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ " تُكْثِرْنَ اللَّعْنَ، وَتَكْفُرْنَ الْعَشِيرَ، مَا رَأَيْتُ مِنْ نَاقِصَاتِ عَقْلٍ وَدِينٍ أَذْهَبَ لِلُبِّ الرَّجُلِ الْحَازِمِ مِنْ إِحْدَاكُنَّ ". قُلْنَ وَمَا نُقْصَانُ دِينِنَا وَعَقْلِنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ قَالَ " أَلَيْسَ شَهَادَةُ الْمَرْأَةِ مِثْلَ نِصْفِ شَهَادَةِ الرَّجُلِ ". قُلْنَ بَلَى. قَالَ " فَذَلِكَ مِنْ نُقْصَانِ عَقْلِهَا، أَلَيْسَ إِذَا حَاضَتْ لَمْ تُصَلِّ وَلَمْ تَصُمْ ". قُلْنَ بَلَى. قَالَ " فَذَلِكَ مِنْ نُقْصَانِ دِينِهَا ".
Narrated Abu Said Al-Khudri:
Once the Messenger (saw) went to offer the prayer of Eid-al-Adha or Al-Fitr. He passed by a group of women and said, "O women! Give alms, as I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-fire were you (women)."
They asked, "Why O Messenger of Allah ?"
He replied, "You curse frequently and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in understanding and practice than you. A cautious sensible man could be led astray by some of you."
The women asked, "O Messenger of Allah! What is deficient in our understanding and practice?"
He said, "Is not the evidence of two women equal to the witness of one man?"
They replied in the affirmative.
He said, "This is the deficiency in her understanding. Isn't it true that a woman can neither pray nor fast during her menses?"
The women replied in the affirmative.
He said, "This is the deficiency in her practice."
(Sahih Bukhari 1:6:301)
The phrase "deficiency in understanding" is often mistranslated as "deficiency in intelligence" causing unnecessary confusion.
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