These who are true to their bond with God and who never break their covenant. For how can you take it back (dower), when you have lain with each other, and entered a firm contract? Those who fulfill the covenant of Allah and do not break the contract (Qur'an 13:20)Ahd refers to a unilateral undertaking or promise but also has been used in the Qur'an to suggest a bilateral obligation.
And fulfill every engagement, for every engagement will be enquired into (on the day of reckoning) (Qur'an 17:34)Aqd is akin to the notion of "contract" occurring frequently in Islamic jurisprudential literature. It arises linguistically from the notion of "to join" or "to tie" something firmly, and technically refers to the joining of an obligation with mutual agreement. The Qur'an has used the word in this sense in various verses:
And fulfill your covenant with me as I fulfil my covenant with you. (Qur'an 2:40)
And resolve not on the marriage tie until the prescribed period (Iddat) reaches its end. (Qur'an 2:235)In Islamic legal literature aqd is used in a general sense and a specific sense. In the general sense, it applies to acts undertaken with firm determination regardless of whether it emerges from a unilateral intention or not.
Allah will not call you to account for what is void in your oaths, but will call you to account for the oath, which you take in earnest. (Qur'an 5:88)
O you who believe! Fulfil your contracts. (Qur'an 5:1)
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