Rationally speaking, Prophets can commit major and minor sins before prophethood (Amidi Vol. 4, p. 143).
However, after prophethood texts suggest they are protected from deliberate lying and major sins, along with minor sins affecting their reputation.
Non-deliberate major sins remain possible for them to commit.
Some examples of their proofs include:
Several textual proofs are cited to support the possibility of prophets committing minor sins:
They rely heavily on authentic ahadith, regardless of the issues with content.
Abu Bakr Baqillani stated it is rationally possible for the prophets to commit sins, both minor and major, before prophethood (Taftazani Vol. 5, p. 50; Amidi Vol. 4, p. 142).
Ash'aris claim prophets are textually protected from sins that could negatively impact their reputation, but not rationally however prophets can commit minor sins though some Ash'ari scholars differ (Juwayni p. 280).
Prophets are free from major and minor sins, however, they may be subject to minor errors (Bazdawi p. 172).
Two verses are commonly cited:
Indeed, We have given you, [O Muhammad], a clear conquest, that Allah may forgive for you what preceded of your sin and what will follow and complete His favour upon you and guide you to a straight path... (Qur'an 48:1-2)
There is a disagreement as to what Allah is referring to when he said "before and after":
However, Maturidis in "Tafseer Maturidi" argue the verse could mean:
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