Throughout Muslim history, from the era of the Messenger in Medina (622 AD) sharia law was implemented continuously across the Muslim world up until the Mughal rule was destroyed in 1858 and the Ottoman Caliphate was destroyed in 1924.
Subsequently we have seen European ideologies and laws imposed upon us reinforced by nation states emerge under the guise of liberation and independence. Independence ended the sovereignty of European powers over Muslim territories; however, it did not produce states afresh. Despite the rhetoric of planting of new seeds, new states were nothing more than new branches based on a trunk planted during the colonial days. You can read more about this here.
The problem we face is the piecemeal attempts at integrating some sharia laws into secular legal systems to give the appearance of sharia. That is a nigh on impossible task.
Allah has ordained Islam and its sharia be implemented in its totality repeatedly in the Qur'an and the same is seen in the seerah where the Messenger (saw) is seeking to persuade nations to do the same.
1. "So judge between them by that which Allah has revealed and follow not their desires away from the truth." 5:48.
2. "Lo, we reveal to you the scripture with the truth, that you may judge between mankind by that which Allah shows you." 4:105
3. "So judge between them by that which Allah has revealed and follow not their desires, but beware of them lest they seduce you from just some part of that which Allah has revealed to you." 4:49
4. "Whoso judges not by that which Allah has revealed, such are disbelievers (Kafir)." 5:44
5. "Whoso judges not by that which Allah has revealed, such are the wrongdoers (Dhalim)." 5:45
6. "Whoso judges not by that which Allah has revealed, such are the evil livers (Fasiq)." 5:47
7. "But no, by the Lord, they will not believe (in truth) until they make you judge of what is in dispute between them and find in their souls No resistance against Thy decisions, but accept Them with the fullest conviction." 4:65
The only way that is possible is through re-establishing the Caliphate through the general method of the Messenger (saw) who established the first Islamic state in Medina - details appear here. The approach is similar to that adopted by all previous messengers who sought to bring about Islam.
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