In a Nutshell:
There are eight companions who narrated only one hadith - the lowest number of hadiths. They comprise: Abay ibn 'Imarah al-Madani, Abi al-Lahm al-Ghifar, Ahmar ibn Jaz' al-Basri, Adraa' as-Sulami, Basheer (or Bishr) ibn Jihash al-Qurash, Hadr ibn Abi Hadr as-Sulam, Rabi'ah ibn 'Amir ibn al-Hadi al-Azdi and Abu Hatim al-Muzani.
Ibn al-Athir narrated in his book 'Asadu-al-Ghabah' there are about 1800 companions narrated ahadith of the Prophet (saw), but the number of the companions doubles the number of the narrator companions.
Out of these companions, there are a number of companions who narrated only one hadith of the Prophet (saw). Imam Suyuti mentioned their names in his book 'Tadreeb ar-Rawi.'
Those companions are:
- Abay ibn 'Imarah al-Madani (أُبَيُّ بْنُ عِمَارَةَ الْمَدَنِيُّ) narrated a narration in Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah regarding wiping over shoes;
- Abi al-Lahm al-Ghifari (آبِي اللَّحْمِ الْغِفَارِيُّ) narrated a hadith regarding the prayer of Istisqa' in Tirmidhi and Nasa'i;
- Ahmar ibn Jaz' al-Basri (أَحْمَرُ بْنُ جَزْءٍ الْبَصْرِيُّ) narrated a hadith regarding the prostration in prayer in Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah;
- Adraa' as-Sulami (أَدْرَعُ السُّلَمِيُّ) narrated a hadith regarding the recitation of a companion in front of the Prophet (saw) in Ibn Majah;
- Basheer (or Bishr) ibn Jihash al-Qurashi (بَشِيرُ بْنُ جِحَاشٍ الْقُرَشِيُّ) narrated a Ququsi hadith in Ahmed and Ibn Majah;
- Hadr ibn Abi Hadr as-Sulami (حَدْرَدُ بْنُ أَبِي حَدْرَدٍ السُّلَمِيُّ) narrated the prophet condemned the abandonment among Muslims in Abu Dawud;
- Rabi'ah ibn 'Amir ibn al-Hadi al-Azdi (رَبِيعَةُ بْنُ عَامِرِ بْنِ الْهَادِ الْأَزْدِيُّ) narrated the Prophet (saw) said 'Be constant with: "O Possessor of Majesty and Honor (Yā Dhal-Jalāli wal-Ikrām)' in Nasa'i; and
- Abu Hatim al-Muzani (أَبِي حَاتِمٍ الْمُزَنِيِّ) narrated a hadith regarding marriage proposals: "When someone whose religion and character you are pleased with comes to you, then marry (her off to) him" in Tirmidhi.
(Suyuti, Tadreeb ar-Rawi, Vol. 2, pp. 396-398)