in category Middle East

What were the titles of monarchs, kings and rulers during the era of the Prophet Muhammed (saw)?

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Ibn Kathir in his al-Sira al-Nabawiyya (Vol. 2, p.18) observes:

  1. "Emperor" or "Heraclius" is the title used for all kings who rule Syria along with the Roman peninsula.
  2. "Chosroe" is the title of those ruling Persia,
  3. "Pharoah" that for those ruling Egypt,
  4. "Muqawqis" for he who rules Alexandria,
  5. "Tubbac" for those ruling Yemen and al-Shahr,
  6. "Negus" for those ruling Abyssinia,
  7. "Batlimus" for those ruling Greece, and, it is said, India, and
  8. "Khiiqan" for those ruling the Turks

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