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The opinion that the Prophet ﷺ’s parents are saved is the opinion of many scholars, including ar-Razī, as-Suyūtī, al-Qurtubī, and others. From the contemporary scholars, it is the view of Muhammad al-Amīn al-Shinqītī, the author of Adwā’ al-Bayān.  They mention many reasons for why this is the case:  - The definite (qati’ī) principles of the Qur’an and Sunnah indicate that those the message has not reached are not punished.  Allah says:  وَمَا كُنَّا مُعَذِّبِینَ حَتَّىٰ نَبۡعَثَ رَسُولࣰا  “And We would never punish until We have sent a messenger.” [Al-Isrā’:15]  - In the case of the Prophet ﷺ’s parents, there exists no such messenger, because they passed away before the Prophet ﷺ received revelation.  - Sheikh Muhammad al-Amīn al-Shinqītī argues that the Ahadith that mention the Prophet ﷺ’s parents being in hellfire are speculative (dhannī), and certainty is given precedence over speculation when they seem to contradict.  - As for the Hadith in Sahīh Muslim that the Prophet ﷺ said: “Your father and my father are in hell”, these scholars said it refers to the Prophet ﷺ’s uncle Abu Tālib.  Using the word “father” for a person’s uncle is common in the Arabic language and in the Qur’an. Allah says - mentioning the statement of the children of Ya’qūb -:  قَالُوا نَعْبُدُ إِلَٰهَكَ وَإِلَٰهَ آبَائِكَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ  “They replied, ‘We will worship your God, the God of your fathers, Ibrahīm, Isma’īl, and Ishāq…’” [Al-Baqarah: 133].  Notice that they say “your fathers” and mentioned Isma’īl, even though Is’maīl is Ya’qūb’s uncle and not his father.  - Other scholars say that the Hadith was before the two parents of the Prophet ﷺ were revived from the dead - if the Hadith is authentic -.  - As for the Hadith that the Prophet ﷺ visited his mother’s grave and ask permission to ask for forgiveness for her, these scholars argue that this merely shows you cannot ask for forgiveness for the people of the Fatra, but does not necessarily mean that they are in hellfire.  - Many scholars, including Ibn Hajar, said that Allah will test the Prophet ﷺ’s parents on Judgement Day, along with the rest of the people of Fatra, as a Hadith narrated in the Musnad indicates.  He further remarks that Allah will allow them to pass the test as an honor for our Prophet ﷺ.   - Others scholars, such as as-Suyūtī and al-Khatīb al-Baghdādī, cite a controversial Hadith, that the Prophet ﷺ’s parents were revived and believed in him, and hence were granted salvation.  Muhammed al-Khalfi

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