The argument within Islam that women have half the testimony of men because they are inexperienced, lack physical and psychological characteristics, and that women are emotional is only half the truth. The Islam apologist Ahmad Gamal has left out a very critical source where Muhammad explains in perfect clarity why he considers women to have half the intelligence of men.
Sahih al-Bukhari (Volume 2), The Book of Zakat, 1462
Narrated AbU Sa'id Al-Khudri Once on the day of Eid-ul-Fitr or Eidui-Ad/ia, Allah's Messenger j went out to the Mucaila (praying place). After finishing the Salat (prayer), he delivered the Kflu;ba (religious talk) and ordered the people to give alms. He said, "0 people! Give alms." Then he went towards the women and said, "0 women! Give alms, for I have seen that the majority of the dwellers of Hell-fire were you (women)." The women asked, "0 Allah's Messenger! What is the reason for it?" He replied, "0 women! You curse frequently, and are ungrateful to your husbands. I have not seen anyone more deficient in intelligence and religion than you. 0 women, some of you can lead a cautious wise man astray." Then he left. And when he reached his house, Zainab, the wife of Ibn Mas'Ud, came and asked permission to enter. It was said, "0 Allah's Messenger! It is Zainab." He asked, "Which Zainab?" The reply was that she was the wife of Ibn Mas'üd. He said, "Yes, allow her to enter." And she was admitted. Then she said, "0 Prophet of Allah! Today, you ordered people to give alms and I had an ornament and intended to give it as alms, but Ibn Mas'Ud said that he and his children deserved it more than anybody else." The Prophet ii replied, "Ibn Mas'Ud had spoken the truth. Your husband and your children had more right to it than anybody else."
Sahih al-Bukhari (Volume 3), The Book of Witnesses, 2658
Narrated AbU Sa'id Al-Khudri: The Prophet said, "Isn't the witness of a woman equal to half of that of a man?" The women said, "Yes." He said, "This is because of the deficiency of a woman's mind."
Muhammad said that women have half the intelligence of men because he believes it to be true; and these words are of the same man who also believed that camel urine was a cure for climate discomfort. He also said to kill apostates; this included those who leave Islam for not liking his urine drinking ideas.
Sahih al-Bulhari (Volume 9), The Book of Ad-Diyat (Blood Money), 6899
Narrated Abu Qilaba: Once 'Umar bin 'Abdul-'Aziz sat on his throne in the courtyard of his house so that the people might gather before him. Then he admitted them and (when they came in), he said, "What do you think of A1-Qasama?" 1 They said, "We say that it is lawful to depend on Al-Qasama in Al-Qisas 2 , as the previous Muslim caliphs carried out Al-Qisas depending on it." Then he said to me, QUWl 6ja 31 110 AbU Qilaba! What do you say about it?" He let me appear before the people and I said, "0 chief of the believers! You have the chiefs of the army staff and the nobles of the Arabs. If fifty of them testified that a married man had committed illegal sexual intercourse in Damascus but they had not seen him (doing so), would you stone him?" He said, "No." I said, "If fifty of them testified that a man had committed theft in Hums, would you cut off his hand, though they did not see him?" He replied, "No." I said, "By Allah, Allah's Messenger never killed anyone except in one of the following three situations: (1) A person who killed somebody (a case of intentional murder), is to be killed (in AlQisas), (2) a married person who committed illegal sexual intercourse, and (3) a man who fought against Allah and His Messenger and deserted Islam and became an apostate." Then the people said, "Didn't Arias bin Mãlik narrate that Allah's Messenger cut off the hands of the thieves, branded their eyes and then threw them in the sun (to die)?" I said, "I shall tell you the narration of Anas. Anas said: "Eight persons from the tribe of 'Ukl came to Allah's Messenger iJ and gave the Baia (pledge) for Islam (became Muslim). The climate of the place (Al-Madina) did not suit them so they became sick and complained about that to Allah's Messenger,. He said ( to them), "Won't you go out with the shepherd of our camels and drink of the camels' milk and urine (as medicine)?" They said, 'Yes." So they went out and drank the camels milk and urine, and after they became healthy, they killed the shepherd of Allah's Messenger Aj and took away all the camels. This news reached Allah's Messenger , so he sent (men) to follow their traces and they were captured and brought (to the Prophet ). He then ordered to cut their hands and feet, and their eyes were branded with heated pieces of iron, and then he threw them in the sun till they died." I said, "What can be worse than what those people did? They deserted Islam, committed murder and theft." Then 'Anbasa bin Sa'id iaid, "By Allah, I never heard a narration like this of today." I said, "0 'Anbasa! You deny my narration?" 'Anbasa said, "No, but you have related the narration in the way it should be related. By Allah, these people are in welfare as long as this Sheikh (Abfl Qilaba is among them." I added, "Indeed in this e rent there has been a Sunna (legal way) set y Allah's Messenger. The narrator added: Some Anc if people came to the Prophettij and discu sed some matters with him, a man from amongst them went out and was murdered. Those people went out after him, and behold, their companion was lying in a pool of blood. They returned to Allah's Messenger and said to him, "0 Allah's Messenger, we have found our companion who had talked with us and gone out before us, swimming in blood (killed) ." Allah's Messenger :. went out and asked them, "Whom do you suspect, or whom do you think has killed him?" They said, "We think that the Jews have killed him." The Prophet sent for the Jews and asked them, "Did you kill this (person)?" They replied, "No." He asked the Al-Ansar, "Do you agree that I let fifty Jews take an oath that they have not killed him?" They said, "It matters little for the Jews to kill us all and then take false oaths." He said, "Then would you like to receive the Diya after fifty of you have taken an oath (that the Jews have killed your man)?" They said, "We will not take the oath." Then the Prophet himself paid them the Diya (blood-money) The narrator added, "The tribe of Hudhail repudiated one of their men (for his evil conduct) in the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance. Then at a place called Al-Batba' (near Makkah), the man attacked a Yemenite family at night to steal from them, but a man from the family noticed him and struck him with his sword and killed him. The tribe of Hudhail came and captured the Yemenite and brought him to 'Umar, during the Hajj season and said, "He has killed our companion." The Yemenite said, "But these people had repudiated him (i.e., their companion)." 'Umar said, "Let fifty persons of Hudhail (tribe) swear that they had not repudiated him." So forty-nine of them took the oath and then a person belonging to them came from Sham and they requested him to swear similarly, but he paid one thousand Dirhams instead of taking the oath. They called another man instead of him and the new man shook hands with the brother of the deceased. Some people said, "We and those fifty men who had taken false oaths (A1-Qasama) set out, and when they reached a place called Nakhlah, it started raining so they entered a cave in the mountain, and the cave collapsed on those fifty men who took the false oath, and all of them died except the two persons who had shaken hands with each other. They escaped death but a stone fell on the leg of the brother of the deceased and broke it, whereupon he survived for one year and then died (The narrator) further said, " 'Abdul Mãlik bin Marwan sentenced a man to death in Al-Qisas (equality in punishment) for murder, basing his judgement on AlQasama, but later on he regretted that judgement and ordered that the names of the fifty persons who had taken the oath (AlQasama),be erased from the register, and he exiled them in Sham."