والأصل الذي يجمع مذهب أبي حنيفة في ذلك: ما رواه ابن رستم عن محمد قال: قال أبو حنيفة: الأنبذة كلها حلال إلا أربعة أشياء: الخمر، والمطبوخ إذا لم يذهب ثلثاه ويبقي ثلثه - قال أبو بكر: يعني مطبوخ العنب -، ونقيع التمر- فإنه سكر-، ونقيع الزبيب. (الجصاص، شرح مختصر الطحاوي 6/359)The different views of the madhab on defining the unlawful drinks:
The key principle of the Hanafi madhab on this issue is based on what has been reported by ibn Rustum on the authority of Muhammad (Al-Shaybani) that Abu Hanifah said: All nabidh drinks (a general term for intoxicating drinks obtained from fermented grape, barley, dates, honey, raisons etc) are lawful except for four drinks: khamr, the cooked grape juice unless two thirds of which had already been evaporated, naqi' al-tamr (the infusion of dried dates, called sakar), and naqi' al-zabib (the infusion of raisin). (Al-Jaṣṣāṣ, Sharḥ Mukhtaṣar al-Ṭaḥāwī fī al-fiqh al-Ḥanafī vol, 6, p. 359)
وحرمها محمد أي الأشربة المتخذة من العسل والتين ونحوهما، قاله المصنف مطلقا قليلها وكثيرها، وبه يفتى، ذكره الزيلعي وغيره واختاره شارح الوهبانية وذكر أنه مروي عن الكل. (حاشية ابن عابدين 6/455)Ibn Abidin, in his Hashiyat (Annotation) on al-Durr al-Muhktar, also stated:
Muhammad (Al-Shaybani) said these drinks (intoxicants not made form grape or dates e.g. made from honey, figs, wheat, millet, barley) are prohibited to drink whether in small or large quantities. The fatwā of the madhab is this view, this is mentioned by al-Zayla'i and others. The interpreter of matn al-Wahbanyia (ibn Al-Shahnah) mentioned this is reported by all. (Ibn Ābidīn, Ḥāshiyat Ibn Ābidīn: Radd al-muḥtār ʻalā al-Durr al-mukhtār, vol. 6, p. 455)
والقدح الأخير المسكر هو المحرم أي على قول الإمام دون ما قبله وإن كان المفتى به قول محمد أن ما أسكر كثيره فقليله حرام. (مصدر سابق 6/455)
Only the last cup that leads to intoxication is the prohibited one according to Abu Hanifah's position. However, the fatwā of the Hanafi madhab is the view of al-Shaybani i.e., what intoxicates in large quantities, a small quantity is also unlawful. (Ibid, vol. 6, p. 455)
وَإِنَّ لَكُمْ فِي الْأَنْعَامِ لَعِبْرَةً ۖ نُّسْقِيكُم مِّمَّا فِي بُطُونِهِ مِن بَيْنِ فَرْثٍ وَدَمٍ لَّبَنًا خَالِصًا سَائِغًا لِّلشَّارِبِينَ - وَمِن ثَمَرَاتِ النَّخِيلِ وَالْأَعْنَابِ تَتَّخِذُونَ مِنْهُ سَكَرًا وَرِزْقًا حَسَنًا ۗ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَةً لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْقِلُونَ (سورة النحل 66-67)The apparent meaning deduced from the verse is the permissibility of these drinks, but there are textual evidences that demonstrate the impermissibility of khamr, and naqi' al-tamr in particular. Therefore, they only excluded these two drinks from the general ruling implied in the verse.
And there is certainly a lesson for you in cattle: We give you to drink of what is in their bellies, from between digested food and blood: pure milk, pleasant to drink. And from the fruits of palm trees and grapevines, you derive intoxicants as well as wholesome provision. Surely in this is a sign for those who understand. (An-Nahl, 66-67)
وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا وَلَا تُسْرِفُوا - سورة الأعراف 31The apparent meaning of the verse implies the permissibility of all drinks.
And eat and drink, but be not excessive. (Al-A'raf 31)
الْخَمْرُ مِنْ هَاتَيْنِ الشَّجَرَتَيْنِ النَّخْلَةِ وَالْعِنَبَةِ. (مسلم 36/16)Ibn Umar (ra) also narrated the Prophet (saw) said:
Wine is prepared from the (fruit) of these two trees-date-palm and vine. (Muslim 36:16)
كُلُّ مُسْكِرٍ حَرَامٌ وَكُلُّ مُسْكِرٍ خَمْرٌ. (النسائي 51/48)Abu Burdah bin Niyar (ra) narrated the Prophet (saw) said:
Every intoxicant is unlawful and every intoxicant is Khamr. (Nasa'i 51:48)
اشْرَبُوا فِي الظُّرُوفِ وَلاَ تَسْكَرُواSahabah
Drink from vessels but do not become intoxicated. (Nasa'i 51:139)
عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رضي الله عنه، قَالَ حُرِّمَتِ الْخَمْرُ بِعَيْنِهَا قَلِيلُهَا وَكَثِيرُهَا وَالسُّكْرُ مِنْ كُلِّ شَرَابٍ .This statement shows that while the smallest drop of khamr is impermissible, drinking from any other intoxicant is only impermissible when it leads to intoxication.
Ibn Abbas (ra) said: Khamr was forbidden in and of itself in small or large amounts, as was every kind of intoxicating drink. (Nasa'i, 51:146; Al-Tahawi, Sharh Ma'ānī al-Āthār, 4:214)
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