in category Beliefs

Did Allah reveal only Imaan and Tawheed in Mecca to the Messenger?

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Masters in Education from Nottingham University in the UK. Also studied Masters in Islamic Studies and Islamic Banking & Finance. Political activist with interests in Geopolitics, History and Phil ...
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Far from it, the revelation in Mecca covered rules of conduct, social life and ruling along with credal beliefs.

Qur'anic verses revealed in Mecca illustrate this:

"And ordain for us good in this world, and in the Hereafter. Certainly we have turned unto You." He said: My Punishment I afflict therewith whom I will and My Mercy embraces all things . That (mercy) I shall ordain for those who are al-Muttaqoon, and give zakat ; and those who believe in our ayaat; those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write, he commands them for al-Ma'roof ; and forbids them from al-Munkar; he allows them as lawful al-Tayibat, and prohibits them as unlawful al-Khaba'ith, he releases them from their heavy burdens, and from the fetters that were upon them." (Qur'an 7:156-157)

Ibn Abbasah al-Sullami (ra) was one of the early companions to accept Islam. As part of his conversion story he narrated some of the things the messenger told him about his call:

تُ وَبِأَىِّ شَىْءٍ أَرْسَلَكَ قَالَ ‏"‏ أَرْسَلَنِي بِصِلَةِ الأَرْحَامِ وَكَسْرِ الأَوْثَانِ وَأَنْ يُوَحَّدَ اللَّهُ لاَ يُشْرَكُ بِهِ شَىْءٌ ‏"‏ ‏.‏ قُلْتُ لَهُ فَمَنْ مَعَكَ عَلَى هَذَا قَالَ ‏"‏ حُرٌّ وَعَبْدٌ ‏"‏قَالَ فَذَهَبْتُ إِلَى أَهْلِي وَقَدِمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الْمَدِينَةَ وَكُنْتُ فِي أَهْلِي فَجَعَلْتُ أَتَخَبَّرُ الأَخْبَارَ وَأَسْأَلُ النَّاسَ حِينَ قَدِمَ الْمَدِينَةَ حَتَّى قَدِمَ عَلَىَّ نَفَرٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ يَثْرِبَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْمَدِينَةِ فَقُلْتُ مَا فَعَلَ هَذَا الرَّجُلُ الَّذِي قَدِمَ الْمَدِينَةَ فَقَالُوا النَّاسُ إِلَيْهِ سِرَاعٌ وَقَدْ أَرَادَ قَوْمُهُ قَتْلَهُ فَلَمْ يَسْتَطِيعُوا ذَلِكَ ‏.‏ فَقَدِمْتُ الْمَدِينَةَ فَدَخَلْتُ عَلَيْهِ
"He said: I am a Messenger.
I asked: Who is a Messenger?
He said: (A Messenger in the sense) I have been sent by Allah.
I said: What is you have been sent with?
He said: I have been sent to maintain familial ties, destroy all idols and to proclaim the oneness of Allah (in a manner that) nothing is to be associated with Him.
I said: Who is with you in this? He said: A free man and a slave." (Muslim 1812)

Jafar ibn Abi Talib summarises what he understood from revelation to the Negus Nashaji of Abyssinia around year 5 of revelation:

"O king, we were an ignorant people: we worshipped idols, we would eat from the flesh of dead animals (i.e., animals that died not through slaughtering, but due to some other cause), we would perpetrate lewd acts, we would cut off family ties, and we would be bad neighbours; the strong among us would eat from the weak (i.e., would oppress the weak and eat from their labour).

We remained upon that state until Allah sent to us a Messenger, whose (noble) lineage, truthfulness, trustworthiness and chastity we already knew (to be impeccable). He invited us unto Allah - to believe in His Oneness and to serve Him; to abandon all that we and our fathers served besides Allah... He commanded us to speak truthfully, to fulfill the trust, to join ties of family relations, to be good to our neighbours, and to refrain from forbidden deeds and from shedding blood. And he forbade us from lewd acts, from uttering falsehood, from (wrongfully) eating the wealth of an orphan, from falsely accusing chaste women of wrongdoing. And he ordered us to serve Allah alone and to not associate any partners with Him; and he commanded us to pray, to give zakat and to fast.

He enumerated for Najashi the teachings of Islam. (He said,) 'And we believe him and have faith in him. We follow him in what he came with. And so we serve Allah alone, without associating any partners with Him in worship. We deem forbidden that which he has made forbidden for us and we deem lawful that which he made permissible for us. Our people then transgressed against us and tortured us.They tried to force us to abandon our deen and to return from the servitude of Allah to the servitude of idols; they tried to make us deem lawful those abominable acts we used to deem lawful (during the days of ignorance). Then, when they subjugated us, wronged us, and treated us in an oppressive manner, standing between us and our deen, we came to your country and we chose you over all other people." (Musnad Ahmed)

Whilst seeking support from tribal leaders after the death of his uncle the Messenger of Allah was taken to Bani Sheeban bin Thalabah. Abu Bakr who accompanied him on these discussions and was aware of the lineage of tribes recommended them to the Prophet for their suitability saying "May my parents be sacrificed for you, none besides them are more honourable than this tribe." The dialogue between Abu Bakr and one of their leaders, Mafruq is most revealing.

The tribal leader Mafruq asked the question "What do you preach my brother?"...
The Messenger recited "Allah commands justice and the doing of good. And giving help to kith and kin. Allah forbids evil deeds, munkar and rebellious actions. He admonishes you so that you may take heed." (Qur'an 16:90)

A similar itinerary was narrated when the Medinites took a pledge with the Messenger (saw) in year 11, suggesting the myth of tawheed dominating the Meccan phase of revelation to be incorrect:

On the night of the first pledge of Aqabah, we pledged to the Messenger of Allah (saw) we will not associate any partners with Allah, we will not steal, we will not commit adultery, we will not kill our children, we will not make false accusations before our hands and feet and we will not disobey him in what was right..." (Fiqh al-Seerah, p. 168)

It suggests the Messenger (saw) was conveying and the companions (ra) most of the important sharia rules along with credal beliefs.

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